Fine-tuning nucleophosmin in macrophage differentiation and activation
ABSTRACT M-CSF-driven differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is one of the sources of tissue macrophages. In humans and mice, the differentiation process involves the activation of caspases that cleave a limited number of proteins. One of these proteins is nucleophosmin (NPM1), a multifunctional and ubiquitous protein. Here, we show that caspases activated in monocytes exposed to M-CSF cleave NPM1 at D213 to generate a 30-kDa N-terminal fragment. The protein is further cleaved into a 20-kDa fragment, which involves cathepsin B. NPM1 fragments contribute to the limited motility, migration, and phagocytosis capabilities of resting macrophages. Their activation with lipopolysaccharides inhibits proteolytic processes and restores expression of the full-length protein that negatively regulates the transcription of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines (eg, NPM1 is recruited with NF-κB on the MCP1 gene promoter to decrease its transcription). In mice with heterozygous npm gene deletion, cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharides, including CXCL1 (KC), MCP1, and MIP2, is dramatically enhanced. These results indicate a dual function of NPM1 in M-CSF-differentiated macrophages. Proteolysis of the protein participates in the establishment of a mature macrophage phenotype. In response to inflammatory stimuli, the full-length protein negatively regulates inflammatory cytokine production.
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ABSTRACT: The CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is activated by the homodimeric growth factors colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34). It plays important roles in development and in innate immunity by regulating the development of most tissue macrophages and osteoclasts, of Langerhans cells of the skin, of Paneth cells of the small intestine, and of brain microglia. It also regulates the differentiation of neural progenitor cells and controls functions of oocytes and trophoblastic cells in the female reproductive tract. Owing to this broad tissue expression pattern, it plays a central role in neoplastic, inflammatory, and neurological diseases. In this review we summarize the evolution, structure, and regulation of expression of the CSF-1R gene. We discuss the structures of CSF-1, IL-34, and the CSF-1R and the mechanism of ligand binding to and activation of the receptor. We further describe the pathways regulating macrophage survival, proliferation, differentiation, and chemotaxis downstream from the CSF-1R.Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 06/2014; 6(6). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a021857 · 8.23 Impact Factor
Article: When monocyte life hangs by a threadBlood 03/2012; 119(12):2699-700. DOI:10.1182/blood-2012-01-403709 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The final decision on cell fate, survival versus cell death, relies on complex and tightly regulated checkpoint mechanisms. The caspase-3 protease is a predominant player in the execution of apoptosis. However, recent progress has shown that this protease paradoxically can also protect cells from death. Here, we discuss the underappreciated, protective, and prosurvival role of caspase-3 and detail the evidence showing that caspase-3, through differential processing of p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), can modulate a given set of proteins to generate, depending on the intensity of the input signals, opposite outcomes (survival vs death).Trends in cell biology 09/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.tcb.2013.08.002 · 12.31 Impact Factor