Fine-tuning nucleophosmin in macrophage differentiation and activation
ABSTRACT M-CSF-driven differentiation of peripheral blood monocytes is one of the sources of tissue macrophages. In humans and mice, the differentiation process involves the activation of caspases that cleave a limited number of proteins. One of these proteins is nucleophosmin (NPM1), a multifunctional and ubiquitous protein. Here, we show that caspases activated in monocytes exposed to M-CSF cleave NPM1 at D213 to generate a 30-kDa N-terminal fragment. The protein is further cleaved into a 20-kDa fragment, which involves cathepsin B. NPM1 fragments contribute to the limited motility, migration, and phagocytosis capabilities of resting macrophages. Their activation with lipopolysaccharides inhibits proteolytic processes and restores expression of the full-length protein that negatively regulates the transcription of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines (eg, NPM1 is recruited with NF-κB on the MCP1 gene promoter to decrease its transcription). In mice with heterozygous npm gene deletion, cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharides, including CXCL1 (KC), MCP1, and MIP2, is dramatically enhanced. These results indicate a dual function of NPM1 in M-CSF-differentiated macrophages. Proteolysis of the protein participates in the establishment of a mature macrophage phenotype. In response to inflammatory stimuli, the full-length protein negatively regulates inflammatory cytokine production.
Article: Genetics of Proteasome Diseases[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (-8C/G) is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit.12/2013; 2013:637629. DOI:10.1155/2013/637629This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
SourceAvailable from: E. Richard Stanley[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is activated by the homodimeric growth factors colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34). It plays important roles in development and in innate immunity by regulating the development of most tissue macrophages and osteoclasts, of Langerhans cells of the skin, of Paneth cells of the small intestine, and of brain microglia. It also regulates the differentiation of neural progenitor cells and controls functions of oocytes and trophoblastic cells in the female reproductive tract. Owing to this broad tissue expression pattern, it plays a central role in neoplastic, inflammatory, and neurological diseases. In this review we summarize the evolution, structure, and regulation of expression of the CSF-1R gene. We discuss the structures of CSF-1, IL-34, and the CSF-1R and the mechanism of ligand binding to and activation of the receptor. We further describe the pathways regulating macrophage survival, proliferation, differentiation, and chemotaxis downstream from the CSF-1R.Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 06/2014; 6(6). DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a021857 · 8.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In addition to their cytoprotective role in stressful conditions, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in specific differentiation pathways, e.g. we have identified a role for HSP90 in macrophage differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes exposed to Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF). Here, we show that deletion of the main transcription factor involved in heat shock gene regulation, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), affects M-CSF-driven differentiation of mouse bone marrow cells. HSF1 transiently accumulates in the nucleus of human monocytes undergoing macrophage differentiation, including M-CSF-treated peripheral blood monocytes and phorbol ester-treated THP1 cells. We demonstrate that HSF1 has a dual effect on SPI1/PU.1, a transcription factor essential for macrophages differentiation and whose deregulation can lead to the development of leukemias and lymphomas. First, HSF1 regulates SPI1/PU.1 gene expression through its binding to a Heat Shock Element (HSE) within the intron 2 of this gene. Furthermore, down-regulation or inhibition of HSF1 impaired both SPI1/PU.1 targeted gene transcription and macrophage differentiation. Secondly, HSF1 induces the expression of HSP70 that interacts with SPI1/PU.1 to protect the transcription factor from proteasomal degradation. Taken together, HSF1 appears as a fine-tuning regulator of SPI1/PU.1 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational levels during macrophage differentiation of monocytes.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 7 February 2014; doi:10.1038/leu.2014.63.Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 02/2014; 28(8). DOI:10.1038/leu.2014.63 · 10.16 Impact Factor