An unfractionated fucoidan was extracted from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Extraction of fucoidan from seaweed was carried out using an innovative low-chemical process. A combinational approach involving compositional analysis, HPAEC, IR analysis, GPC, and NMR was employed to elucidate the composition and structure of an unfractionated fucoidan from A. nodosum. This fucoidan is composed mainly of fucose (52.1%), and also galactose (6.1%), glucose (21.3%), and xylose (16.5%). Sulfate content was determined to be 19%. GPC data indicated a polydisperse fucoidan containing two main size fractions (47 and 420 kDa). NMR analyses revealed a fucoidan displaying broad, complex signals as expected for such a high molecular weight and heterogeneous polymer with resonances consistent with a fucoidan isolated previously from A. nodosum. The effects of fucoidan on the apoptosis of human colon carcinoma cells and fucoidan-mediated signaling pathways were also investigated. Fucoidan decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon carcinoma cells. Fucoidan treatment of HCT116 cells induced activation of caspases-9 and -3 and the cleavage of PARP, led to apoptotic morphological changes, and altered mitochondrial membrane permeability. These results detail the structure and biological activity of an unfractionated fucoidan from A. nodosum.
"An unfractionated fucoidan was extracted from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum and its effect on the apoptosis of human HCT116 colon carcinoma cells was studied and the signaling pathways involved were investigated. Fucoidan decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of the carcinoma cells, through activation of caspases 9 and 3 and the cleavage of PARP (Foley et al. 2011). Haneji et al. (2005) examined the effect of fucoidan from the brown seaweed Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida against an incurable form of cancer, the adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seaweeds, being prolific sources of bioactive components have garnered unprecedented interest in recent times. The complex polysaccharides from the brown, red and green seaweeds possess broad spectrum therapeutic properties. Especially, the sulfated polysaccharides, viz. fucans, carrageenans and ulvans have exhibited strong antioxidant, antitumor, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, pulmonary fibrosis anticoagulant/antithrombotic, lipid lowering, antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoan, hyperplasia prevention, gastrointestinal, regenerative and nano medicine applications. Considering the immense biomedical prospects of sulfated polysaccharides, the profound and emerging functional properties published in recent times will be discussed here with experimental evidences. The limitations of the seaweed-derived sulfated polysaccharides in healthcare will be summarized. Strategies to maximize extraction and bioavailability will be pondered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs products from Sargassum
henslowianum C. Agardh (FSAR) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVES), respectively, on proliferation of melanoma B16 cells and to investigate the underlying apoptosis promoting mechanisms. Cell viability analysis showed that both FCSPs products, i.e., FSAR and FVES, decreased the proliferation of the melanoma cells in a dose-response fashion, with FSAR being more potent at lower dosages, and FVES being relatively more anti-proliferative than FSAR at higher dosages. Flow cytometric analysis by Annexin V staining of the melanoma cells exposed to the FCSPs products confirmed that both FSAR and FVES induced apoptosis. The FCSPs-induced apoptosis was evidenced by loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and translocation of the cell membrane phospholipids and was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. The FCSPs bioactivity is proposed to be attributable to distinct structural features of the FCSPs, particularly the presence of sulfated galactofucans (notably in S.
henslowianum) and sulfated fucans (notably in F. vesiculosus). This study thus indicates that unfractionated FCSPs may exert bioactive effects on skin cancer cells via induction of apoptosis through cascades of reactions that involve activation of caspase-3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomedical field is constantly requesting for new biomaterials, with innovative properties. Natural polymers appear as materials of election for this goal due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. In particular, materials found in marine environment are of great interest since the chemical and biological diversity found in this environment is almost uncountable and continuously growing with the research in deeper waters. Moreover, there is also a slower risk of these materials to pose illnesses to humans.
In particular, sulfated polysaccharides can be found in marine environment, in different algae species. These polysaccharides don’t have equivalent in the terrestrial plants and resembles the chemical and biological properties of mammalian glycosaminoglycans. In this perspective, are receiving growing interest for application on health-related fields. On this review, we will focus on the biomedical applications of marine algae sulfated polymers, in particular on the development of innovative systems for tissue engineering and drug delivery approaches.
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