lincRNAs act in the circuitry controlling pluripotency and differentiation

Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 08/2011; 477(7364):295-300. DOI: 10.1038/nature10398
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although thousands of large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in mammals, few have been functionally characterized, leading to debate about their biological role. To address this, we performed loss-of-function studies on most lincRNAs expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and characterized the effects on gene expression. Here we show that knockdown of lincRNAs has major consequences on gene expression patterns, comparable to knockdown of well-known ES cell regulators. Notably, lincRNAs primarily affect gene expression in trans. Knockdown of dozens of lincRNAs causes either exit from the pluripotent state or upregulation of lineage commitment programs. We integrate lincRNAs into the molecular circuitry of ES cells and show that lincRNA genes are regulated by key transcription factors and that lincRNA transcripts bind to multiple chromatin regulatory proteins to affect shared gene expression programs. Together, the results demonstrate that lincRNAs have key roles in the circuitry controlling ES cell state.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess unique gene expression programs that enforce their identity and regulate lineage commitment. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and cell fate decisions, although their functions in HSCs are unclear. Here we profiled the transcriptome of purified HSCs by deep sequencing and identified 323 unannotated lncRNAs. Comparing their expression in differentiated lineages revealed 159 lncRNAs enriched in HSCs, some of which are likely HSC specific (LncHSCs). These lncRNA genes share epigenetic features with protein-coding genes, including regulated expression via DNA methylation, and knocking down two LncHSCs revealed distinct effects on HSC self-renewal and lineage commitment. We mapped the genomic binding sites of one of these candidates and found enrichment for key hematopoietic transcription factor binding sites, especially E2A. Together, these results demonstrate that lncRNAs play important roles in regulating HSCs, providing an additional layer to the genetic circuitry controlling HSC function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play important roles in many cellular processes. Here, we present the first systematic identification and characterization of lincRNAs in fetal porcine skeletal muscle. We obtained a total of 55.02 million 90-bp paired-end reads and assembled 54,550 transcripts using cufflinks. We developed a pipeline to identify 570 multi-exon lincRNAs by integrating a set of previous approaches. These putative porcine lincRNAs share many characteristics with mammalian lincRNAs, such as a relatively short length, small number of exons and low level of sequence conservation. We found that the porcine lincRNAs were preferentially located near genes mediating transcriptional regulation rather than those with developmental functions. We further experimentally analyzed the features of a conserved mouse lincRNA gene and found that isoforms 1 and 4 of this lincRNA were enriched in the cell nucleus and were associated with polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Our results provide a catalog of fetal porcine lincRNAs for further experimental investigation of the functions of these genes in the skeletal muscle developmental process.
    Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5:8957. DOI:10.1038/srep08957 · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged recently as a new class of genes that regulate cellular processes, such as cell growth and apoptosis. The SPRY4 intronic transcript 1 (SPRY4-IT1) is a 708-bp lncRNA on chromosome 5 with a potential functional role in tumorigenesis. The clinical significance of SPRY4-IT1 and the effect of SPRY4-IT1 on cancer progression are unclear. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to investigate the expression of SPRY4-IT1 in 48 breast cancer tissues and four breast cancer cell lines. Gain and loss of function approaches were used to investigate the biological role of SPRY4-IT1 in vitro. Microarray bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify the putative targets of SPRY4-IT1, which were further verified by rescue experiments, and by western blotting and qRT-PCR. SPRY4-IT1 expression was significantly upregulated in 48 breast cancer tumor tissues comparedwith normal tissues. Additionally, increased SPRY4-IT1 expression was found to be associated with a larger tumor size and an advanced pathological stage in breast cancer patients. The knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 significantly suppressed proliferation and caused apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, we discovered that ZNF703 was a target of SPRY4-IT1 and was downregulated by SPRY4-IT1 knockdown. Moreover, we provide the first demonstration that ZNF703 plays an oncogenic role in ER (-) breast carcinoma cells. SPRY4-IT1 is a novel prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic candidate for breast cancer.
    Molecular Cancer 02/2015; 14(1):51. DOI:10.1186/s12943-015-0318-0 · 5.40 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014