Endocrine mechanisms responsible for different follicular development during the estrous cycle in Hatano high- and low-avoidance rats.
ABSTRACT Hatano high- and low-avoidance rats (HAA and LAA strains, respectively) were selected and bred according to the avoidance rate in a shuttle-box task. Although they have clear strain differences in ovarian function, their endocrine mechanisms still remain to be clarified. Differences in female reproductive endocrinology between the strains were investigated by means of measuring the plasma concentration of reproductive hormones during the estrous cycle. LAA rats showed approximately threefold lower basal and surge levels of LH, a more than fourfold lower level of FSH surges and higher levels of inhibin A and inhibin B during the estrous cycle compared with the levels seen in HAA rats. The concentration of estradiol-17β in the proestrous stage was significantly lower in LAA rats than in HAA rats. Additionally, LH and FSH secretions from primary cultured anterior pituitary cells with or without in vitro GnRH stimulation were lower in the cells derived from LAA rats and, in terms of FSH secretion, were unresponsive to GnRH in contrast to cells derived from HAA rats. Although an increased number of preantral follicles in diestrus were observed in LAA rats, number of hCG-induced ovulation was lower in LAA rats. LAA rats may have much more follicle growth during the early stage of folliculogenesis, but most follicles might not grow into mature follicles. These results strongly suggest that the strain difference in ovarian function of these two Hatano rats is due to the difference in the regulation of hypothalamo-hypophyseal system for gonadotropins secretion.
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ABSTRACT: Progesterone (P) powerfully inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in ewes, as in other species, but the neural mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Using an estrogen (E)-free ovine model, we investigated the immediate GnRH and luteinizing hormone (LH) response to acute manipulations of circulating P concentrations and whether this response was mediated by the nuclear P receptor. Simultaneous hypophyseal portal and jugular blood samples were collected over 36 hr: 0-12 hr, in the presence of exogenous P (P treatment begun 8 days earlier); 12-24 hr, P implant removed; 24-36 hr, P implant reinserted. P removal caused a significant rapid increase in the GnRH pulse frequency, which was detectable within two pulses (175 min). P insertion suppressed the GnRH pulse frequency even faster: the effect detectable within one pulse (49 min). LH pulsatility was modulated identically. The next two experiments demonstrated that these effects of P are mediated by the nuclear P receptor since intracerebroventricularly infused P suppressed LH release but 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one, which operates through the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, was without effect and pretreatment with the P-receptor antagonist RU486 blocked the ability of P to inhibit LH. Our final study showed that P exerts its acute suppression of GnRH through an E-dependent system because the effects of P on LH secretion, lost after long-term E deprivation, are restored after 2 weeks of E treatment. Thus we demonstrate that P acutely inhibits GnRH through an E-dependent nuclear P-receptor system.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1998; 95(18):10978-83. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plasma concentrations of inhibin pro-alphaC, inhibin A and inhibin B were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 6 h intervals throughout the 4-day oestrous cycle of the golden hamster. Plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestradiol-17beta were also measured by radioimmunoassay during the oestrous cycle. Plasma concentrations of inhibin A increased from the early morning of day 1 (day 1=day of ovulation) and reached plateau levels at 0500 h on day 2. An abrupt increase in plasma concentrations of inhibin A was found at 1700 h on day 4, when the preovulatory FSH surge was observed. An increase in plasma concentrations of inhibin B occurred on day 1 and reached plateau levels at 1700 h on day 1. The levels remained elevated until 0500 h on day 4 and declined gradually by 2300 h on day 4. Plasma concentrations of inhibin pro-alphaC gradually increased with some fluctuation from day 1 to 1700 h on day 4 and then declined. Significant negative relationships were noted between plasma FSH and both dimeric forms of inhibin from day 1 to day 3. Significant positive relationships were found between plasma oestradiol-17beta and inhibin A or inhibin pro-alphaC throughout the oestrous cycle. In contrast, no significant relationship was found between plasma oestradiol-17beta and inhibin B. These findings suggest that both dimeric forms of inhibin play a role in the regulation of FSH secretion during follicular development. These findings also suggest that inhibin pro-alphaC could be secreted primarily by large follicles, and early atretic follicles could also be responsible for inhibin pro-alphaC secretion. On the other hand, the secretory pattern of dimeric inhibins might shift from inhibin B to inhibin A with follicular development.Journal of Endocrinology 10/1999; 162(3):451-6. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In rhesus monkeys with hypothalamic lesions that abolish gonadotropic hormone release by the pituitary gland, the constant infusion of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) fails to restore sustained gonadotropin secretion. In marked contrast, intermittent administration of the synthetic decapeptide once per hour, the physiological frequency of gonadotropin release in the monkeys, reestablishes pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This phenomenon is attributable to the pattern of GnRH delivery rather than to the amounts of this hormone to which the cells of the pituitary are exposed. Moreover, the initiation of continuous GnRH administration in animals with lesions and in which gonadotropin secretion is reestablished by intermittent GnRH replacement can result in a "desensitization" or "down regulation" of the processes responsible for gonadotropin release.Science 12/1978; 202(4368):631-3. · 31.03 Impact Factor