Deletion of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger pendrin downregulates calcium-absorbing proteins in the kidney and causes calcium wasting.

Research Services, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.37). 08/2011; 27(4):1368-79. DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfr505
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) (TRPV5) and the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger pendrin (SLC26A4) are expressed on the apical membrane of tubular cells in the distal nephron and play essential roles in calcium re-absorption and bicarbonate secretion, respectively, in the kidney.
A combination of functional and molecular biology techniques were employed to examine the role of pendrin deletion in calcium excretion.
Here, we demonstrate that deletion of pendrin causes acidic urine [urine pH 4.9 in knockout (KO) versus 5.9 in wild-type (WT) mice, P<0.03)] and downregulates the calcium-absorbing molecules ECaC and Na/Ca exchanger in the kidney, as shown by northern hybridization, immunoblot analysis and/or immunofluorescent labeling. These changes were associated with a ∼100% increase in 24-h urine calcium excretion in pendrin null mice. Subjecting the pendrin WT and KO mice to oral bicarbonate loading for 12 days increased the urine pH to ∼8 in both genotypes, normalized the expression of ECaC and Na/Ca exchanger and reduced the urine calcium excretion in pendrin-null mice to levels comparable to WT mice.
We suggest that pendrin dysfunction should be suspected and investigated in humans with an otherwise unexplained acidic urine and hypercalciuria.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phylogenetically ancient SLC26 gene family encodes multifunctional anion exchangers and anion channels transporting a broad range of substrates, including Cl(-), HCO3(-), sulfate, oxalate, I(-), and formate. SLC26 polypeptides are characterized by N-terminal cytoplasmic domains, 10-14hydrophobic transmembrane spans, and C-terminal cytoplasmic STAS domains, and appear to be homo-oligomeric. SLC26-related SulP proteins of marine bacteria likely transport HCO3(-) as part of oceanic carbon fixation. SulP genes present in antibiotic operons may provide sulfate for antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. SLC26-related Sultr proteins transport sulfate in unicellular eukaryotes and in plants. Mutations in three human SLC26 genes are associated with congenital or early onset Mendelian diseases: chondrodysplasias for SLC26A2, chloride diarrhea for SLC26A3, and deafness with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct for SLC26A4. Additional disease phenotypes evident only in mouse knockout models include oxalate urolithiasis for Slc26a6 and Slc26a1, non-syndromic deafness for Slc26a5, gastric hypochlorhydria for Slc26a7 and Slc26a9, distal renal tubular acidosis for Slc26a7, and male infertility for Slc26a8. STAS domains are required for cell surface expression of SLC26 proteins, and contribute to regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in complex, cell- and tissue-specific ways. The protein interactomes of SLC26 polypeptides are under active investigation.
    Molecular Aspects of Medicine 04/2013; 34(2-3):494-515. · 10.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, the prodrug of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir, shows high efficacy and relatively low toxicity in HIV patients. However, long-term kidney toxicity is now acknowledged as a modest but significant risk for tenofovir-containing regimens, and continuous use of tenofovir in HIV therapy is currently under question by practitioners and researchers. Co-morbidities (hepatitis C, diabetes), low body weight, older age, concomitant administration of potentially nephrotoxic drugs, low CD4 count, and duration of therapy are all risk factors associated with tenofovir-associated tubular dysfunction. Tenofovir is predominantly eliminated via the proximal tubules of the kidney, therefore drug transporters expressed in renal proximal tubule cells are believed to influence tenofovir plasma concentration and toxicity in the kidney. We review here the current evidence that the actions, pharmacogenetics, and drug interactions of drug transporters are relevant factors for tenofovir-associated tubular dysfunction. The use of creatinine and novel biomarkers for kidney damage, and the role that drug transporters play in biomarker disposition, are discussed. The lessons learnt from investigating the role of transporters in tenofovir kidney elimination and toxicity can be utilized for future drug development and clinical management programs.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 11/2014; 5:248.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Solute-linked carrier 26 (SLC26) isoforms constitute a conserved family of anion transporters with 10 distinct members. Except for SLC26A5 (prestin), all can operate as multifunctional anion exchangers, with three members (SLC26A7, SLC26A9, and SLC26A11) also capable of functioning as chloride channels. Several SLC26 isoforms can specifically mediate Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange. These include SLC26A3, A4, A6, A7, A9, and A11, which are expressed in the kidney except for SLC26A3 (DRA), which is predominantly expressed in the intestine. SLC26 Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger isoforms display unique nephron segment distribution patterns with distinct subcellular localization in the kidney tubules. Together with studies in pathophysiologic states and the examination of genetically engineered mouse models, the evolving picture points to important roles for the SLC26 family in health and disease states. This review summarizes recent advances in the characterization of the SLC26 Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchangers in the kidney with emphasis on their essential role in diverse physiological processes, including chloride homeostasis, oxalate excretion and kidney stone formation, vascular volume and blood pressure regulation, and acid-base balance.Kidney International advance online publication, 1 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.138.
    Kidney International 05/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014