Cervicitis in Adolescents: Do Clinicians Understand Diagnosis and Treatment?
ABSTRACT Cervicitis is widespread, but no studies have examined cervicitis in accordance with established guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Study objectives were to describe adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of cervicitis within an adolescent population and to compare factors associated with adherence to guidelines in a primary care setting and the Emergency Department.
Data were collected as part of a retrospective chart review of evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of STI in adolescent women in an outpatient setting. Participant charts were eligible for review if they were 12-21 years of age and were given an ICD-9 and chart diagnosis of cervicitis. Two primary outcome variables: meeting cervicitis guidelines and correct treatment among those meeting cervicitis guidelines (no/yes) were utilized; the study controlled for age, race, venue, past infection with chlamydia or gonorrhea.
Subjects (n = 365) were examined for the primary outcome variables and 75.1% (274/365) met at least one criterion for cervicitis. Of these, 166 (60.9%: 166/274) subjects were found to meet criteria for cervicitis alone, versus subjects meeting criteria for both cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (39.4%: 108/274). The majority, 89.3%, (326/365) were treated for both chlamydia and gonorrhea, but only 64.7% (211/326) were treated correctly for both infections.
Our findings suggest that knowledge deficits exist in diagnosis and treatment of cervicitis in adolescent patients and in differentiating between cervicitis and PID. Educational tools, simulated patient exercises, and order sets may be warranted for quality improvement to allow for improved care of this at risk sexually active population.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) broadened the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnostic criteria to increase detection and prevent serious sequelae of untreated PID. The impact of this change on PID detection is unknown. Our objectives were to estimate trends in PID diagnosis among adolescent emergency department (ED) patients before and after the revised CDC definition and to identify factors associated with PID diagnoses. METHODS: We performed a retrospective repeated cross-sectional study using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2000 to 2009 of ED visits by 14- to 21-year-old females. We calculated national estimates of PID rates and performed multivariable logistic regression analyses and tests of trends. RESULTS: During 2000-2009, of the 77 million female adolescent ED visits, there were an estimated 704,882 (95% confidence interval [CI], 571,807-837,957) cases of PID. After the revised criteria, PID diagnosis declined from 5.4 cases per 1,000 United States adolescent females to 3.9 cases per 1,000 (p = .03). In a multivariable model, age ≥17 years (odds ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.25-3.64) and black race (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.36-3.07) were associated with PID diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Despite broadened CDC diagnostic criteria, PID diagnoses did not increase over time. This raises concern about awareness and incorporation of the new guidelines into clinical practice.Journal of Adolescent Health 05/2013; 53(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.03.016 · 2.75 Impact Factor