Multienzyme-nanoparticles amplification for sensitive virus genotyping in microfluidic microbeads array using Au nanoparticle probes and quantum dots as labels.
ABSTRACT A novel microfluidic device with microbeads array was developed and sensitive genotyping of human papillomavirus was demonstrated using a multiple-enzyme labeled oligonucleotide-Au nanoparticle bioconjugate as the detection tool. This method utilizes microbeads as sensing platform that was functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins, and uses the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-functionalized gold nanoparticles as label with a secondary DNA probe. The functionalized microbeads were independently introduced into the arrayed chambers using the loading chip slab. A single channel was used to generate weir structures to confine the microbeads and make the beads array accessible by microfluidics. Through "sandwich" hybridization, the enzyme-functionalized Au nanoparticles labels were brought close to the surface of microbeads. The oxidation of biotin-tyramine by hydrogen peroxide resulted in the deposition of multiple biotin moieties onto the surface of beads. This deposition is markedly increased in the presence of immobilized electron rich proteins. Streptavidin-labeled quantum dots were then allowed to bind to the deposited biotin moieties and displayed the signal. Enhanced detection sensitivity was achieved where the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carriers increased the amount HRP bound per sandwiched hybridization. The on-chip genotyping method could discriminate as low as 1fmol/L (10zmol/chip, SNR>3) synthesized HPV oligonucleotides DNA. The chip-based signal enhancement of the amplified assay resulted in 1000 times higher sensitivity than that of off-chip test. In addition, this on-chip format could discriminate and genotype 10copies/μL HPV genomic DNA using the PCR products. These results demonstrated that this on-chip approach can achieve highly sensitive detection and genotyping of target DNA and can be further developed for detection of disease-related biomolecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence.