Dual asymmetric-flow microdialysis for in vivo monitoring of brain neurochemicals.
ABSTRACT Microdialysis is an extensively used technique for both in vivo and in vitro experiments, applicable to animal and human studies. In neurosciences, the in vivo microdialysis is usually performed to follow changes in the extracellular levels of substances and to monitor neurotransmitters release in the brain of freely moving animals. Catecholamines, such as dopamine and their related compounds, are involved in the neurochemistry and in the physiology of mental diseases and neurological disorders. It is generally supposed that the brain's energy requirement is supplied by glucose oxidation. More recently, lactate was proposed to be the metabolic substrate used by neurons during synaptic activity. In our study, an innovative microdialysis approach for simultaneous monitoring of catecholamines, indolamines, glutamate and energy substrates in the striatum of freely moving rats, using an asymmetric perfusion flow rate on microdialysis probe, is described. As a result of this asymmetric perfusion, two samples are available from the same brain region, having the same analytes composition but different concentrations. The asymmetric flow perfusion could be a useful tool in neurosciences studies related to brain's energy requirement, such as toxin-induced models of Parkinson's disease.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of perfusion media with different glucose concentrations on dialysate levels of lactate, pyruvate, aspartate (Asp), and glutamate (Glu) under basal and hypoxic conditions in rat brain neocortex. Intracerebral microdialysis was performed with the rat under general anesthesia using bilateral probes (o.d. 0.3 mm; membrane length, 2 mm) perfused with artificial CSF containing 0.0 and 3.0 mM glucose, respectively. Basal dialysate levels were obtained 2 h after probe implantation in artificially ventilated animals. Dialysate levels of glucose were also measured for the two different perfusion fluids. The mean absolute extracellular concentration of glucose was estimated by a modification of the no-net-flux method to be 3.3 mmol/L, corresponding to an average in vivo recovery of 6% for glucose. Hypoxia was induced by lowering the inspired oxygen concentration to 3%. Hypoxia caused a disturbance of cortical electrical activity, evidenced by slower frequency and lower amplitudes on the electroencephalogram compared with prehypoxic conditions. This was associated with significant elevations of lactate, Asp, and Glu levels. There were no statistically significant difference in dialysate metabolite levels between the two perfusion fluids, during either normal or hypoxic conditions. We conclude that microdialysis with glucose-free perfusion fluid does not drain brain extracellular glucose in anesthetized rats to the extent that the dialysate lactate, pyruvate, Asp, and Glu levels during basal or hypoxic conditions are altered.Journal of Neurochemistry 08/1995; 65(1):257-62. · 3.97 Impact Factor