Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.26). 09/2011; 50(9):903-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2011.06.010
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD).
This was a 16-week, randomized, controlled, multi-site trial of OROS-MPH + CBT versus placebo + CBT in 303 adolescents (aged 13 through 18 years) meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD and SUD. Primary outcome measures included the following: for ADHD, clinician-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), adolescent informant; for substance use, adolescent-reported days of use in the past 28 days. Secondary outcome measures included parent ADHD-RS and weekly urine drug screens (UDS).
There were no group differences on reduction in ADHD-RS scores (OROS-MPH: -19.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], -17.1 to -21.2; placebo, -21.2, 95% CI, -19.1 to -23.2) or reduction in days of substance use (OROS-MPH: -5.7 days, 95% CI, 4.0-7.4; placebo: -5.2 days, 95% CI, 3.5-7.0). Some secondary outcomes favored OROS-MPH, including lower parent ADHD-RS scores at 8 (mean difference = 4.4, 95% CI, 0.8-7.9) and 16 weeks (mean difference =6.9; 95% CI, 2.9-10.9) and more negative UDS in OROS-MPH (mean = 3.8) compared with placebo (mean = 2.8; p = .04).
OROS-MPH did not show greater efficacy than placebo for ADHD or on reduction in substance use in adolescents concurrently receiving individual CBT for co-occurring SUD. However, OROS-MPH was relatively well tolerated and was associated with modestly greater clinical improvement on some secondary ADHD and substance outcome measures. Clinical Trial Registration Information-Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders (SUD); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00264797.

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Available from: Leanne Tamm, Jan 02, 2014
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    • "At the same time, treatment of ADHD is compromised in the presence of SUD. Most ADHD treatment studies using methylphenidate in SUD patients have shown that this medication was not effective in reduction of ADHD symptoms [6-11], and only one randomized controlled trial reported some decrease in self-reported ADHD symptoms after methylphenidate treatment of ADHD in SUD patients [12]. None of the studies showed a clear effect on substance use outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD). The combination of ADHD and SUD is associated with a negative prognosis of both SUD and ADHD. Pharmacological treatments of comorbid ADHD in adult patients with SUD have not been very successful. Recent studies show positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in ADHD patients without SUD, but CBT has not been studied in ADHD patients with comorbid SUD. Methods/design This paper presents the protocol of a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an integrated CBT protocol aimed at reducing SUD as well as ADHD symptoms in SUD patients with a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD. The experimental group receives 15 CBT sessions directed at symptom reduction of SUD as well as ADHD. The control group receives treatment as usual, i.e. 10 CBT sessions directed at symptom reduction of SUD only. The primary outcome is the level of self-reported ADHD symptoms. Secondary outcomes include measures of substance use, depression and anxiety, quality of life, health care consumption and neuropsychological functions. Discussion This is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an integrated CBT protocol for adult SUD patients with a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD. The rationale for the trial, the design, and the strengths and limitations of the study are discussed. Trial registration This trial is registered in http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01431235.
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    • "For example, in a secondary analysis of a study with ADHD in adults, Biederman et al. [51] concluded that they found no moderating effects of concomitant use of antidepressants on the ADHD treatment effect with OROS-MPH. Second, a paucity of data exists also for the evidence related to the combined use of medication and psychotherapy (eg, [52]). "
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occurs in adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the impact of MDD on substance treatment and ADHD outcomes and implications for clinical practice are unclear. Adolescents (n=303; ages 13-18) meeting DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and SUD were randomized to osmotic release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) or placebo and 16 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Adolescents with (n=38) and without (n=265) MDD were compared on baseline demographic and clinical characteristics as well as non-nicotine substance use and ADHD treatment outcomes. Adolescents with MDD reported more non-nicotine substance use days at baseline and continued using more throughout treatment compared to those without MDD (p<0.0001 based on timeline followback; p<0.001 based on urine drug screens). There was no difference between adolescents with and without MDD in retention or CBT sessions attended. ADHD symptom severity (based on DSM-IV ADHD rating scale) followed a slightly different course of improvement although with no difference between groups in baseline or 16-week symptom severity or 16-week symptom reduction. There was no difference in days of substance use or ADHD symptom outcomes over time in adolescents with MDD or those without MDD treated with OROS-MPH or placebo. Depressed adolescents were more often female, older, and not court ordered. These preliminary findings suggest that compared to non-depressed adolescents with ADHD and SUD, those with co-occurring MDD have more severe substance use at baseline and throughout treatment. Such youth may require interventions targeting depression.
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