Outcomes of Second-Run Extracorporeal Life Support in Children: A Single-Institution Experience
ABSTRACT After weaning from mechanical circulatory support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or ventricular assist devices, patients may recurrently deteriorate and require reinstitution of support. Potential benefits of this desperate strategy are not well documented.
We reviewed the hospital records of all patients in whom second-run mechanical circulatory support was instituted from May 1988 to August 2010.
Second-run support was instigated in 26 (4.6%) of 567 patients who underwent short-term mechanical circulatory support. Underlying pathologies requiring support were cardiac in 20 patients (76.9%) and noncardiac in 6 patients (23.1%).The majority of patients were younger than 1 year old (73.1%, n=19). Fifteen patients (57.7%) survived second-run support, but only 7 patients (26.9%) survived to discharge from the hospital. After a median follow-up of 42.5 months (range, 16 to 66 months), 4 patients (15.4%) were alive, but 3 of them had various degrees of developmental delay.
Selection of patients who can benefit from second-run support is a complex process with unpredictable results. Survival after second-run mechanical circulatory support in children is worse compared with single-run patients. Long-term prospects for survivors are so grim that this strategy should probably not be recommended.
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ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a rescue therapy for life-threatening respiratory or circulatory failure. Although outcomes are favorable with short-term ECMO therapy, data on the outcomes of prolonged ECMO therapy in children are very limited. This study aimed to study morbidity and mortality associated with prolonged ECMO therapy (≥28 days) in children with refractory cardiac or pulmonary failure. We conducted a retrospective review of all children≤18 years supported with ECMO for ≥28 days between January 1991 and September 2011 at the Arkansas Children's Hospital. The data collected in our study included patient demographic information; diagnosis; indication for ECMO; ECMO support details; medical and surgical history; laboratory, microbiologic, and radiographic data; information on organ dysfunction; complications; and patient outcomes. The outcome variables evaluated in this report included survival to ECMO decannulation, survival to hospital discharge, and current survival with emphasis on neurologic, renal, pulmonary, and other end organ function. During the study period, 984 events in 951 patients were supported with ECMO with a 30-day survival of 666 events (68%). Only 22 ECMO runs were ≥28 days and were eligible for inclusion in this report. The longest ECMO run in our series was 1,206 hours (50 days). The average length of ECMO run in this cohort was 855±133 hours, with a mean intensive care unit length of stay of 56±27 days. Ten patients (45%) were successfully decannulated from ECMO. Six patients (27%) were alive 30 days after decannulation, and only 4 patients (19%) survived to hospital discharge. Of the 4 survivors, only 3 patients (14%) are living to date. Of the 3 living children, 2 have significant neurologic issues with brain atrophy and developmental delay, and 1 is awaiting renal transplant; all 3 survivors have chronic lung disease. This case series highlights that the prolonged use of ECMO in children with refractory cardiac failure, respiratory failure, or both is associated with low survival. Furthermore, it suggests that the survivors of prolonged ECMO runs have significant long-term sequelae.The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2012; 93(5):1584-90. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.01.008 · 3.65 Impact Factor
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 07/2013; 45(2). DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezt361 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Remarkable outcomes have been reported after prolonged mechanical circulatory support in the pediatric population, but there is yet no clear delineation of the duration beyond which supporting a child becomes futile. The likelihood of survival in patients supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure decreases with the length of support. However, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be successfully used in these patients for long periods (weeks to months) provided adequate support is maintained without complications. This is not the case with cardiac failure and mechanical circulatory support. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is usually the initial form of mechanical circulatory support used in patients with primary refractory myocardial dysfunction. There is evidence and consensus that if the patient shows no signs of recovery after a maximum duration of 2 weeks, he or she should be transitioned to a ventricular assist device, which allows prolonged support. In post-cardiac surgery patients, survival is only anecdotal beyond 12 days of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and myocardial recovery is exceptionally rare after this time period unless new diagnoses and management strategies are formulated. Repeat extracorporeal membrane oxygenation should generally not be offered to patients unless it is established that support was withdrawn prematurely or a new intervention is planned. Repeat extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may achieve some improvement in early survival, but the long-term outcomes of survivors are so poor that these attempts cannot be generally recommended unless organ transplantation is an option.Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 06/2013; 14(5):S69-S72. DOI:10.1097/PCC.0b013e318292e332 · 2.33 Impact Factor