Placebo-controlled pilot study of ramelteon for adiposity and lipids in patients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Few interventions have been successful to prevent or reverse the medical complications associated with antipsychotic agents in the schizophrenia population. In particular, no single agent can correct multiple metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, obesity, and fat distribution. We now report a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study to examine the effects of ramelteon on obesity and metabolic disturbances among subjects with schizophrenia.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week pilot trial was conducted, adding ramelteon 8 mg/d to stable outpatients with schizophrenia. Vital signs and anthropometric measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, and body fat were assessed, and laboratory assays were tracked to monitor changes in metabolic markers.
Twenty-five subjects were randomly assigned to treatment with study drug or placebo, and 20 subjects were included in the final analysis. Ramelteon did not improve anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and inflammatory markers. There was, however, a significant decrease in total cholesterol and ratio of cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein in the ramelteon group. Although the standard anthropometric measures did not show significant change, the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan showed a trend toward reduction in fat in the abdominal and trunk areas with a moderate effect size.
Although ramelteon decreased cholesterol, treatment may have to be longer than 8 weeks and with a higher dose for maximal effect of ramelteon for body fat and lipid changes. Future studies are needed for patients with schizophrenia with a larger sample size to fully understand ramelteon's effects on abdominal adiposity and lipids.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Melatonin synchronizes circadian rhythms with light/dark period and it was demonstrated to correct chronodisruption. Several melatonin receptor agonists with improved pharmacokinetics or increased receptor affinity are being developed, three of them are already in clinical use. However, the actions of melatonin extend beyond chronobiology to cardiovascular and metabolic systems as well. Given the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and their common occurrence with chronodisruption, it is of utmost importance to classify the cardiometabolic effects of the newly approved and putative melatoninergic drugs. Areas covered: In the present review, the available (although very sparse) data on such effects, in particular by the approved (circadin, ramelteon, agomelatine) or clinically advanced (tasimelteon, piromelatine = Neu-P11, TIK-301) compounds are summarized. The authors have searched for an association with blood pressure, vascular reactivity, ischemia, myocardial and vascular remodeling and metabolic syndrome. Expert opinion: The data suggest that cardiovascular effects of melatonin are at least partly mediated via MT(1)/MT(2) receptors and associated with its chronobiotic action. Therefore, despite the sparse direct evidence, it is believed that these effects will be shared by melatonin analogs as well. With the expected approval of novel melatoninergic compounds, it is suggested that the investigation of their cardiovascular effects should no longer be neglected.Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 08/2012; 21(11):1661-78. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep-onset and maintenance insomnia is a common symptom in schizophrenic patients regardless of either their medication status (drug-naive or previously treated) or the phase of the clinical course (acute or chronic). Regarding sleep architecture, the majority of studies indicate that non-rapid eye movement (NREM), N3 sleep and REM sleep onset latency are reduced in schizophrenia, whereas REM sleep duration tends to remain unchanged. Many of these sleep disturbances in schizophrenia appear to be caused by abnormalities of the circadian system as indicated by misalignments of the endogenous circadian cycle and the sleep-wake cycle. Circadian disruption, sleep onset insomnia and difficulties in maintaining sleep in schizophrenic patients could be partly related to a presumed hyperactivity of the dopaminergic system and dysfunction of the GABAergic system, both associated with core features of schizophrenia and with signaling in sleep and wake promoting brain regions. Since multiple neurotransmitter systems within the CNS can be implicated in sleep disturbances in schizophrenia, the characterization of the neurotransmitter systems involved remains a challenging dilemma.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 01/2013; · 3.55 Impact Factor
Dataset: sleep schizo pandi 2013 (1)