Placebo-controlled pilot study of ramelteon for adiposity and lipids in patients with schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Few interventions have been successful to prevent or reverse the medical complications associated with antipsychotic agents in the schizophrenia population. In particular, no single agent can correct multiple metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, obesity, and fat distribution. We now report a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study to examine the effects of ramelteon on obesity and metabolic disturbances among subjects with schizophrenia.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week pilot trial was conducted, adding ramelteon 8 mg/d to stable outpatients with schizophrenia. Vital signs and anthropometric measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, and body fat were assessed, and laboratory assays were tracked to monitor changes in metabolic markers.
Twenty-five subjects were randomly assigned to treatment with study drug or placebo, and 20 subjects were included in the final analysis. Ramelteon did not improve anthropometric measurements, glucose metabolism, and inflammatory markers. There was, however, a significant decrease in total cholesterol and ratio of cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein in the ramelteon group. Although the standard anthropometric measures did not show significant change, the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan showed a trend toward reduction in fat in the abdominal and trunk areas with a moderate effect size.
Although ramelteon decreased cholesterol, treatment may have to be longer than 8 weeks and with a higher dose for maximal effect of ramelteon for body fat and lipid changes. Future studies are needed for patients with schizophrenia with a larger sample size to fully understand ramelteon's effects on abdominal adiposity and lipids.
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ABSTRACT: The history, rationale, and development of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) is described. The SCID is a semistructured interview for making the major Axis I DSM-III-R diagnoses. It is administered by a clinician and includes an introductory overview followed by nine modules, seven of which represent the major axis I diagnostic classes. Because of its modular construction, it can be adapted for use in studies in which particular diagnoses are not of interest. Using a decision tree approach, the SCID guides the clinician in testing diagnostic hypotheses as the interview is conducted. The output of the SCID is a record of the presence or absence of each of the disorders being considered, for current episode (past month) and for lifetime occurrence.Archives of General Psychiatry 09/1992; 49(8):624-9. · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to determine whether differences in body fat distribution result in specific abnormalities of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, palmitate turnover, a measure of systemic adipose tissue lipolysis, was measured in 10 women with upper body obesity, 9 women with lower body obesity, and 8 nonobese women under overnight postabsorptive (basal), epinephrine stimulated and insulin suppressed conditions. Results: Upper body obese women had greater (P less than 0.005) basal palmitate turnover than lower body obese or nonobese women (2.8 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg lean body mass (LBM)-1.min-1, respectively), but a reduced (P less than 0.05) net lipolytic response to epinephrine (59 +/- 7 vs. 79 +/- 5 vs. 81 +/- 7 mumol palmitate/kg LBM, respectively). Both types of obesity were associated with impaired suppression of FFA turnover in response to euglycemic hyperinsulinemia compared to nonobese women (P less than 0.005). These specific differences in FFA metabolism may reflect adipocyte heterogeneity, which may in turn affect the metabolic aberrations associated with different types of obesity. These findings emphasize the need to characterize obese subjects before studies.Journal of Clinical Investigation 05/1989; 83(4):1168-73. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Greater visceral adiposity, higher insulin resistance, and impaired insulin secretion increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether visceral adiposity increases risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) independent of other adipose depots, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion is not known. Study subjects included 128 Japanese Americans with normal glucose tolerance at entry. Baseline variables included plasma glucose and insulin measured after an overnight fast and during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, fat areas by computed tomography, insulin secretion (incremental insulin response [IIR] [30 min insulin - fasting insulin]/30 min glucose), and insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]). During the 10- to 11-year follow-up period, we confirmed 57 cases of IGT. Significant predictors of IGT included intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) (odds ratio [OR] for a 1 SD increase 3.82, 95% CI 1.63-8.94 at a fasting plasma glucose [FPG] level of 4.5 mmol/l), HOMA-IR (2.41, 1.15-5.04), IIR (0.30, 0.13-0.69 at an FPG level of 4.5 mmol/l), the interactions of IAFA by FPG (P = 0.003), and IIR by FPG (P = 0.030) after adjusting for age, sex, FPG, and BMI. The multiple-adjusted OR of IAFA increased and that of IIR decreased as FPG level decreased because of these interactions. Even after adjustment for total fat area, total subcutaneous fat area, or abdominal subcutaneous fat area, all of these associations remained a significant predictor of IGT incidence. Greater visceral adiposity increases the risk of IGT independent of insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and other adipose depots in Japanese Americans.Diabetes Care 04/2003; 26(3):650-5. · 7.74 Impact Factor