Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 09/2011; 34(9):2116-22. DOI: 10.2337/dc11-0518
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that higher magnesium intake may reduce diabetes incidence. We aimed to examine the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
We conducted a PubMed database search through January 2011 to identify prospective cohort studies of magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates.
Meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies involving 536,318 participants and 24,516 cases detected a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk [RR] 0.78 [95% CI 0.73-0.84]). This association was not substantially modified by geographic region, follow-up length, sex, or family history of type 2 diabetes. A significant inverse association was observed in overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) but not in normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), although test for interaction was not statistically significant (P(interaction) = 0.13). In the dose-response analysis, the summary RR of type 2 diabetes for every 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89). Sensitivity analyses restricted to studies with adjustment for cereal fiber intake yielded similar results. Little evidence of publication bias was observed.
This meta-analysis provides further evidence supporting that magnesium intake is significantly inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-response manner.

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    • "Mg 2C also takes part in cardiac excitability, and low levels of Mg 2C (hypomagnesemia) increase cardiac arrhythmias (Ganga et al., 2013; Vierling et al., 2013) and cardiovascular stroke (del Globbo et al., 2013; Joosten et al., 2013b; Qu et al., 2013), and low dietary intakes are associated with type 2 diabetes (Barbagallo and Dominguez, 2007; Kikuchi et al., 2012; Kirii et al., 2010; Lima et al., 2009; Munekage et al., 2012; Volpe, 2008); it is related as a cofactor in glucose transport through the cell as well as insulin secretion (Chaundry et al., 2010). This relationship between hypomagnesemia and the development of diabetes is even greater in insulin-resistant patients (Dong et al. 2011; Hata et al., 2013). In particular, a low level of Mg 2C is implicated in different pathological effects such as hypertension (Sontia and Touyz, 2007), has a pronounced effect in pregnancy3, and is associated with urinary excretion (Barbosa et al., 2005; Cunha et al., 2013; Joosten et al., 2013a; Kazemian et al., 201). "
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