Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.42). 09/2011; 34(9):2116-22. DOI: 10.2337/dc11-0518
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that higher magnesium intake may reduce diabetes incidence. We aimed to examine the association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
We conducted a PubMed database search through January 2011 to identify prospective cohort studies of magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates.
Meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies involving 536,318 participants and 24,516 cases detected a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk [RR] 0.78 [95% CI 0.73-0.84]). This association was not substantially modified by geographic region, follow-up length, sex, or family history of type 2 diabetes. A significant inverse association was observed in overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) but not in normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), although test for interaction was not statistically significant (P(interaction) = 0.13). In the dose-response analysis, the summary RR of type 2 diabetes for every 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89). Sensitivity analyses restricted to studies with adjustment for cereal fiber intake yielded similar results. Little evidence of publication bias was observed.
This meta-analysis provides further evidence supporting that magnesium intake is significantly inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-response manner.

Download full-text


Available from: Jia-Yi Dong, Sep 27, 2015
22 Reads
  • Source
    • "Mg 2C also takes part in cardiac excitability, and low levels of Mg 2C (hypomagnesemia) increase cardiac arrhythmias (Ganga et al., 2013; Vierling et al., 2013) and cardiovascular stroke (del Globbo et al., 2013; Joosten et al., 2013b; Qu et al., 2013), and low dietary intakes are associated with type 2 diabetes (Barbagallo and Dominguez, 2007; Kikuchi et al., 2012; Kirii et al., 2010; Lima et al., 2009; Munekage et al., 2012; Volpe, 2008); it is related as a cofactor in glucose transport through the cell as well as insulin secretion (Chaundry et al., 2010). This relationship between hypomagnesemia and the development of diabetes is even greater in insulin-resistant patients (Dong et al. 2011; Hata et al., 2013). In particular, a low level of Mg 2C is implicated in different pathological effects such as hypertension (Sontia and Touyz, 2007), has a pronounced effect in pregnancy3, and is associated with urinary excretion (Barbosa et al., 2005; Cunha et al., 2013; Joosten et al., 2013a; Kazemian et al., 201). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnesium is an essential mineral in human metabolism, and is the second most abundant intracellular cation and the fourth most abundant in the human body. Magnesium has a large variety of biological functions, including being a co-factor for over 300 enzymes, mainly involving phosphorylation of proteins and nucleic acids. Low levels of magnesium in the body can develop during different illness, such as diabetes (type 2), metabolic syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias and muscular constriction. The present review shows the advances in Analytical Chemistry based on sensor systems to quantify the concentration of magnesium in different biological samples, plasma, serum or urine, which are relevant to human health.
    Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry 01/2015; 45(1):32-40. DOI:10.1080/10408347.2013.867229 · 1.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Magnesium deficiency [30] was described a common factor associated with insulin resistance [31], which impairs energy metabolism efficiency and reduces the capacity for physical work, exerts negative effects on blood glucose homeostasis, and is independently associated with depressive symptoms [32-35]. In addition, magnesium intake in two studies was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 DM [36]. In turn, niacin has been reported to decrease VLDL, LDL and small dense LDL particles and increase HDL levels resulting in an overall beneficial lipoprotein profile. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BMI (body mass index) can be misleading regarding the level of adiposity in a normal-weight individual. Recently, a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method was developed that can measure body composition variables. The main objectives of this study were to use BIA to compare the body composition variables between chronic non-diabetic schizophrenic patients with normal weight and healthy individuals. The secondary objective was to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects, and to identify possible relationships between the content of different components of their diet and visceral adiposity. The subjects were 52 normal-weight patients (33 males and 19 females) diagnosed with schizophrenia based on the DSM-IV and 45 (23 males and 22 females) BMI- matched controls. The patients had been receiving atypical or typical antipsychotic agents for at least one year before enrollment into the study but continuously for 3 months preceding the study and were psychiatrically stable. Body fat (kg), percent (%) body fat, fat-free mass, VAT (visceral adipose tissue) and SAT (subcutaneous adipose tissue) were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Daily food rations (DFR) were quantitatively evaluated by a 24-h dietary recall method covering 3 days preceding the examination. In normal-weight patients schizophrenia was significantly linked with higher VAT, VAT/SAT ratio and lower fat- free mass. Men had over 5 times and women over 2 times as much VAT as BMI matched groups. In women with schizophrenia and in their controls, the amount of magnesium, niacin and vitamin B6 in their diet inversely correlated with VAT, while in men lower zinc and vitamin C intake was related to higher visceral adiposity. Our study has shown that normal-weight patients with chronic schizophrenia have higher levels of visceral fat (VAT) than controls but similar volume of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Although no clear conclusion can be made regarding cause-and-effect relationships between the dietary content of food served to our patients and visceral obesity, we suggest that schizophrenia diet should be further investigated as a possible factor related to this type of obesity.
    BMC Psychiatry 02/2014; 14(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-14-35 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Dairy is a major source of dietary calcium and magnesium, 2 minerals that have a role in the development of T2DM, for potential in improving pancreatic B-cell function and insulin sensitivity [39]. Experimental [39], prospective cohort studies [40], [41] and a recent meta-analysis [42] have provided convincing evidence to support the direct effects of calcium and magnesium intake on insulin resistance and T2DM. In this study, we found that the association of dairy intake and T2DM risk remained unchanged after adjusting for diet calcium and/or magnesium (7 studies), so other major components in dairy products could account for the association. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose-response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies), low-fat dairy products (8 studies), cheese (7 studies) and yogurt (7 studies) and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97) and 0.88 (0.84-0.93) for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69-0.93) and 0.91 (0.82-1.00) for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake. A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73965. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073965 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Show more