Article

Irradiation history of Itokawa regolith material deduced from noble gases in the Hayabusa samples

Geochemical Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 08/2011; 333(6046):1128-31. DOI: 10.1126/science.1207785
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Noble gas isotopes were measured in three rocky grains from asteroid Itokawa to elucidate a history of irradiation from cosmic rays and solar wind on its surface. Large amounts of solar helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) trapped in various depths in the grains were observed, which can be explained by multiple implantations of solar wind particles into the grains, combined with preferential He loss caused by frictional wear of space-weathered rims on the grains. Short residence time of less than 8 million years was implied for the grains by an estimate on cosmic-ray-produced (21)Ne. Our results suggest that Itokawa is continuously losing its surface materials into space at a rate of tens of centimeters per million years. The lifetime of Itokawa should be much shorter than the age of our solar system.

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    • "Category 1 particles are composed only of transparent minerals, whereas category 2 particles consist of not only transparent particles but also opaque minerals (Yada et al. 2014). Particles belonging to categories 1 and 2 have been confirmed as Itokawa regolith (e.g., Ebihara et al. 2011; Nagao et al. 2011; Nakamura et al. 2011; Noguchi et al. 2011; Tsuchiyama et al. 2011; Yurimoto et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Three category 3 (organic) particles (RB-QD04-0001, RB-QD04-0047-02, and RA-QD02-0120) and so-called `white object' found in the sample container have been examined by micro-Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. In addition, several artificial substances that could occur as possible contaminants and chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) prepared from the Murchison CM2 chondrite were analyzed. The Raman spectra of the particles show broad G-band and weak D-band. The G-band parameters plot in the disordered region and close to the artifact produced from a Viton glove after laser exposure rather than chondritic IOM. The particles were therefore originally at low maturity level, suggesting that they have not experienced strong heating and are therefore not related to the LL4-6 parent body. The IR spectra are not similar to that of chondritic IOM. Furthermore, the particles cannot be identified as some artificial carbonaceous substances, including the white object, which are the possible contaminants, examined in this investigation. Although it cannot be determined exactly whether the three category 3 particles are extraterrestrial, the limited IR and Raman results in this investigation strongly suggest their terrestrial origin. Although they could not be directly related to the artificial contaminants examined in this investigation, they may yet be reaction products from similar substances that flew on the mission. In particular, RB-QD04-0047-02 shows several infrared spectral absorption bands in common with the `white object.' This may relate to the degradation of a polyimide/polyamide resin.
    12/2015; 67(1). DOI:10.1186/s40623-015-0182-6
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    • "A preliminary examination of asteroid Itokawa particles collected by the Hayabusa spacecraft has successfully unveiled the mineralogical, petrographic, chemical, and isotopic relationships between an S-type asteroid and ordinary LL chondrites and provided the first direct evidence that meteorites originate from asteroids (Ebihara et al. 2011; Nakamura et al. 2011; Noguchi et al. 2011; Tsuchiyama et al. 2011; Yurimoto et al. 2011). The noble gas isotopic compositions (Nagao et al. 2011) and the asteroid particle sizes and shapes (Tsuchiyama et al. 2011) have also recorded asteroid surface processes such as irradiation and meteoroid impacts, which are not observed in meteorites. "
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    ABSTRACT: Analyses with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were applied for the molecular characterization of two kinds of carbonaceous particles of unknown origin, termed category 3, which were collected from the Hayabusa spacecraft sample catcher. Carbon-XANES spectra of the category 3 particles displayed typical spectral patterns of heterogeneous organic macromolecules; peaks corresponding to aromatic/olefinic carbon, heterocyclic nitrogen and/or nitrile, and carboxyl carbon were all detected. Nitrogen-XANES spectra of the particles showed the presence of N-functional groups such as imine, nitrile, aromatic nitrogen, amide, pyrrole, and amine. An oxygen-XANES spectrum of one of the particles showed a ketone group. Differences in carbon-and nitrogen-XANES spectra of the category 3 particles before and after transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations were observed, which demonstrates that the carbonaceous materials are electron beam sensitive. Calcium-XANES spectroscopy and elemental contrast mapping identified a calcium carbonate grain from one of the category 3 particles. No fluorine-containing molecular species were detected in fluorine-XANES spectra of the particles. The organic macromolecular features of the category 3 particles were distinct from commercial and/or biological 'fresh (non-degraded)' polymers, but the category 3 molecular features could possibly reflect degradation of contaminant polymer materials or polymer materials used on the Hayabusa spacecraft. However, an extraterrestrial origin for these materials cannot currently be ruled out.
    Earth Planets and Space 12/2014; 66(1):156. DOI:10.1186/s40623-014-0156-0 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    • "These particles were initially classified into four categories based on their chemical composition obtained from analysis by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) with energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS). Particles classified as categories 1 and 2 were mainly composed of silicate materials and were confirmed as Itokawa regolith particles by the Hayabusa sample preliminary examination team (HASPET) (Ebihara et al. 2011; Nagao et al. 2011; Nakamura et al. 2011; Noguchi et al. 2011; Tsuchiyama et al. 2011; Yurimoto et al. 2011). Category 4 particles were defined as particles containing synthetic material originating from the sample catcher, the micro-manipulator, and the clean chamber (e.g., aluminum flake, quartz glass, and stainless steel). "
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    ABSTRACT: Preliminary results of the analyses of five carbonaceous materials (particle size of approximately 50 μm) from the Hayabusa spacecraft sample catcher, including their texture, chemistry, and chemical/isotopic compositions, are summarized. The carbonaceous particles underwent sequential analysis using a series of microanalytical instruments located at several research institutes and universities. Collected particles were initially classified into four categories: two categories containing extraterrestrial silicate particles, one category containing metal and quartz particles consistent with contamination from the sample catcher or sample manipulation tools, and a final category containing carbonaceous particles. Analysis of this final category was the main focus of this study. Through examination of the carbonaceous materials, the appropriate analytical processes for sample transportation and handling were optimized to minimize sample damage and terrestrial contamination. Particles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy/scanning transmission electron microscopy, and Ca-carbonate inclusions were found in one particle. In a different particle, a heterogeneous distribution of silicon in a uniform C, N, and O matrix was found. Though further analysis is required for a strict determination of particle origin, the differences in the microstructure and elemental distribution of the carbonaceous particles suggest multiple origins.
    11/2014; 66(1). DOI:10.1186/1880-5981-66-102
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