Cytochrome P450 2E1 metabolizes ethanol and also bioactivates many toxins and procarcinogens. Elevated levels of hepatic CYP2E1 are associated with an increased susceptibility to chemical toxicity and carcinogenesis. This study investigated the induction of hepatic CYP2E1 by ethanol and nicotine, alone and in combination, in a nonhuman primate model. Monkeys that self-administered ethanol and that received subcutaneous injections of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg b.i.d.), alone and in combination, were compared with control animals (four groups, n = 10/group). Chlorzoxazone (CZN) was used as a probe drug to phenotype in vivo CYP2E1 activity before and after chronic ethanol and/or nicotine exposure. CYP2E1 protein levels and in vitro chlorzoxazone metabolism were assessed in liver microsomes. Average daily ethanol consumption was ≈3.0 g/kg (blood ethanol levels ≈24 mM) and was unaffected by nicotine treatment. Ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment, alone and in combination, significantly increased in vivo CZN disposition compared with that in control animals. The effect of ethanol was only observed at higher levels of intake. Ethanol and nicotine increased CYP2E1 protein levels and in vitro CZN metabolism, with combined exposure to both drugs resulting in the greatest increase. The effect of ethanol was also dependent on level of intake. Chronic exposure to ethanol and nicotine induced hepatic CYP2E1 activity and protein levels, particularly when both drugs were used in combination and when ethanol intake was high. These results have important implications for public health, given the association between elevated CYP2E1 and disease, and the large proportion of individuals who are exposed to ethanol and nicotine, often in combination.
"However, it is anticipated that chronic ethanol exposure would produce a relatively greater increase in CYP2E1 expression that would lead to higher levels of oxidative stress and CYP2A6 expression. Indeed, our preliminary observations from human monocytes of mild-to-moderate alcoholics have shown that CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 are induced by ten and four fold, respectively (data not shown), which is consistent with a previous study that evaluated chronic exposure of liver and brain to alcohol and nicotine in rat and monkey , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is known to metabolize nicotine, the major constituent of tobacco, leading to the production of toxic metabolites and induction of oxidative stress that result in liver damage and lung cancer. Recently, we have shown that CYP2A6 is induced by ethanol and metabolizes nicotine into cotinine and other metabolites leading to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in U937 monocytes. However, the mechanism by which CYP2A6 is induced by ethanol is unknown. In this study, we have examined the role of the PKC/Nrf2 pathway (protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 to the nucleus) in ethanol-mediated CYP2A6 induction. Our results showed that 100 mM ethanol significantly induced CYP2A6 mRNA and protein (~150%) and increased ROS formation, and induction of gene expression and ROS were both completely blocked by treatment with either a CYP2E1 inhibitor (diallyl sulfide) or an antioxidant (vitamin C). The results suggest the role of oxidative stress in the regulation of CYP2A6 expression. Subsequently, we investigated the role of Nrf2 pathway in oxidative stress-mediated regulation of CYP2A6 expression in U937 monocytes. Our results showed that butylated hydroxyanisole, a stabilizer of nuclear Nrf2, increased CYP2A6 levels >200%. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of PKC, completely abolished ethanol-induced CYP2A6 expression. Furthermore, our results showed that a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) (U0126) completely abolished ethanol-mediated CYP2A6 induction and Nrf2 translocation. Overall, these results suggest that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress produced as a result of ethanol metabolism translocates Nrf2 into the nucleus through PKC/MEK pathway, resulting in the induction of CYP2A6 in monocytes. An increased level of CYP2A6 in monocytes is expected to further increase oxidative stress in smokers through CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. Thus, this study has clinical relevance because of the high incidence of alcohol use among smokers, especially in HIV-infected individuals.
PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e35505. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0035505 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In primates, nicotine is metabolically inactivated in the liver by CYP2A6 and possibly CYP2B6. Changes in the levels of these two enzymes may impact nicotine pharmacokinetics and influence smoking behaviors. This study investigated the independent and combined effects of ethanol self-administration and nicotine treatment (0.5 mg/kg bid s.c.) on hepatic CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 levels (mRNA, protein and enzymatic activity), in vitro nicotine metabolism and in vivo nicotine pharmacokinetics in monkeys. CYP2A6 mRNA and protein levels, and in vitro coumarin (selective CYP2A6 substrate) and nicotine metabolism were decreased by nicotine treatment but unaffected by ethanol. CYP2B6 protein levels and in vitro bupropion (selective CYP2B6 substrate) metabolism were increased by ethanol but unaffected by nicotine treatment; CYP2B6 mRNA levels were unaltered by either treatment. Combined ethanol and nicotine exposure decreased CYP2A6 mRNA and protein levels, as well as in vitro coumarin and nicotine metabolism, and increased CYP2B6 protein levels and in vitro bupropion metabolism, with no change in CYP2B6 mRNA levels. Chronic nicotine resulted in higher nicotine plasma levels achieved after nicotine administration, consistent with decreased CYP2A6. Ethanol alone, or combined ethanol and nicotine, resulted in lower nicotine plasma levels by a mechanism independent of the change in these enzymes. Thus, nicotine can decrease hepatic CYP2A6 reducing the metabolism of its substrates, including nicotine, while ethanol can increase hepatic CYP2B6 increasing the metabolism of CYP2B6 substrates. In vivo nicotine pharmacokinetics are differentially affected by ethanol and nicotine, but when both drugs are used in combination the effect more closely resembles ethanol alone.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2012; 343(3). DOI:10.1124/jpet.112.198564 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research on Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism has been very well documented in literature. Besides the involvement of CYP2E1 in alcohol metabolism as illustrated through the studies discussed in the chapter, recent studies have thrown light on several other aspects of CYP2E1 i.e. its extrahepatic expression, its involvement in several diseases and pathophysiological conditions; and CYP2E1 mediated carcinogenesis and modulation of drug efficacy. Studies involving these interesting facets of CYP2E1 have been discussed in the chapter focusing on the recent observations or ongoing studies illustrating the crucial role of CYP2E1 in disease development and drug metabolism.
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