Postoperative Complications in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea
ABSTRACT Unrecognized obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with unfavorable perio-perative outcomes among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery (NCS).
The study population was chosen from 39,771 patients who underwent internal medicine preoperative assessment between January 2002 and December 2006. Patients undergoing NCS within 3 years of polysomnography (PSG) were considered for the study, whereas those < 18 years of age, with a history of upper airway surgery, or who had had minor surgery under local or regional anesthesia were excluded. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 were defined as OSA and those with an AHI < 5 as control subjects. For adjusting baseline differences in age, sex, race, BMI, type of anesthesia, American Society of Anesthesiology class, and medical comorbidities, the patients were classified into five quintiles according to a propensity score.
Out of a total of 1,759 patients who underwent both PSG and NCS, 471 met the study criteria. Of these, 282 patients had OSA, and the remaining 189 served as control subjects. The presence of OSA was associated with a higher incidence of postoperative hypoxemia (OR, 7.9; P = .009), overall complications (OR, 6.9; P = .003), and ICU transfer (OR, 4.43; P = .069), and a longer hospital length of stay (LOS), (OR, 1.65; P = .049). Neither an AHI nor use of continuous positive airway pressure at home before surgery was associated with postoperative complications (P = .3 and P = .75, respectively) or LOS (P = .97 and P = .21, respectively).
Patients with OSA are at higher risk of postoperative hypoxemia, ICU transfers, and longer hospital stay.
SourceAvailable from: Frances Chung[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a commonly encountered comorbid condition in patients undergoing surgery and is associated with a greater risk of postoperative adverse events. Our objective in this review was to investigate the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in reducing the risk of postoperative adverse events in patients with OSA undergoing surgery, the perioperative Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), and the hospital length of stay (LOS). We performed a systematic search of the literature databases. We reviewed the studies that included the following: (1) adult surgical patients (>18 years old) with information available on OSA; (2) patients using either preoperative and/or postoperative CPAP or no-CPAP; (3) available reports on postoperative adverse events, preoperative and postoperative AHI, and LOS; and (4) all published studies in English including case series. Six studies that included 904 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis for postoperative adverse events was performed in 904 patients (CPAP: n = 471 vs no-CPAP: n = 433; adverse events: 134 vs 133; P = 0.19). There was no significant difference in the postoperative adverse events between the 2 groups. The preoperative baseline AHI without CPAP was reduced significantly with postoperative use of CPAP (preoperative AHI versus postoperative AHI, 37 ± 19 vs 12 ± 16 events per hour, P < 0.001). LOS showed a trend toward significance in the CPAP group versus the no-CPAP group (4.0 ± 4 vs 4.4 ± 8 days, P = 0.05). Our review suggests that there was no significant difference in the postoperative adverse events between CPAP and no-CPAP treatment. Patients using CPAP had significantly lower postoperative AHI and a trend toward shorter LOS. There may be potential benefits in the use of CPAP during the perioperative period.Anesthesia and analgesia 05/2015; 120(5):1013-23. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000634 · 3.42 Impact Factor
ASA Refresher Courses in Anesthesiology 01/2012; 40(1):119-128. DOI:10.1097/ASA.0b013e31825e545d
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increasing, and facing these challenges is common in the operating rooms and critical care units worldwide. In this review we summarize the existing literature which supports the following recommendations for the perioperative ventilation in obese patients: (1) the use of protective ventilation with low tidal volumes (approximately 8 mL/kg, calculated based on predicted -not actual- body weight) to avoid volutrauma; (2) a focus on lung recruitment by utilizing PEEP (8-15cmH2O) in addition to recruitment maneuvers during the intraoperative period, as well as incentivized deep breathing and noninvasive ventilation early in the postoperative period, to avoid atelectasis, hypoxemia and atelectrauma; and (3) a judicious oxygen use (ideally less than 0.8) to avoid hypoxemia but also possible reabsorption atelectasis. Obesity poses an additional challenge for achieving adequate protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation, but different lung isolation techniques have been adequately performed in obese patients by experienced providers. Postoperative efforts should be directed to avoid hypoventilation, atelectasis and hypoxemia. Further studies are needed to better define optimum protective ventilation strategies and analyze their impact on the perioperative outcomes of surgical patients with obesity.BMC Anesthesiology 04/2015; 15(1):56. DOI:10.1186/s12871-015-0032-x · 1.33 Impact Factor