Keratoconjunctivitis sicca of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected individuals is associated with high levels of HTLV-1 proviral load.
ABSTRACT A high HTLV-1 proviral load is found in HTLV-1-associated diseases, mainly HAM/TSP. However, the association between proviral load and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) has not been well established.
To verify the association between KCS and HTLV-1 proviral load.
104 HTLV-1 infected patients (51 asymptomatic and 52 with HAM/TSP) from the HTLV reference center in Salvador, Brazil were followed from June 2008 to May 2010. Evaluation of tear secretion was performed by BUT (break-up time), Rose Bengal and Schirmer I tests. The diagnosis of KCS was based upon the presence of symptoms and when at least two of three tests were positive. HTLV-1 proviral load was determined using real-time PCR.
The prevalence of KCS was 44.2%. KCS was more frequent among HAM/TSP patients (p = 0.022). Patients with KCS had higher proviral load (mean 134,672 ± 150,393copies/10(6) PBMC) than patients without the disease (mean 66,880 ± 109,525copies/10(6) PBMC) (p = 0.001). HTLV-1 proviral load>100,000copies/10(6) PBMC increased significantly the risk of developing KCS (OR = 4.05 and 95% CI = 1.40-11.76). After age>45 years and HAM/TSP status were excluded in stepway reward analysis, the variables PVL>100,000 (OR = 4.77 and 95% CI = 1.83-12.44) still remained statistically significant.
HTLV-1 proviral loads are higher in patients with KCS and may represent a relevant biological marker of disease.
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ABSTRACT: Variations in human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load (PVL) in infected individuals over time are not well understood. To evaluate the evolution of proviral load in asymptomatic individuals and HAM/TSP patients in order to help determine periodicity for measuring proviral load. A group of 104 HTLV-1 infected patients, followed at the HTLV reference center in Salvador, Brazil, were included in the study (70 asymptomatic and 34 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients). HTLV-1 PVL was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at baseline and again at another point, either ≤ 12 months, between 12-24 months, or ≥ 24 months. HAM/TSP patients had higher PVL (ranging from 11,041 to 317,009 copies/10(6) PBMC) when compared to asymptomatic individuals (ranging from 0 to 68,228 copies/10(6) PBMC). No statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of PVL in HAM/TSP patients or asymptomatic individuals over time. However, in asymptomatic individuals with a PVL below 50,000 copies/10(6) PBMC, a statistically significant two-fold increase was observed over time. HTLV-1-PVL remained stable in both asymptomatic individuals and HAM/TSP patients over time. Frequent monitoring of asymptomatic individuals with low PVLs is recommended and further studies should be conducted to assess the course of PVL in these patients over extended periods of time.The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 07/2012; 16(4):357-60. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A previous study found the prevalence of depression in HTLV-1-infected patients to be approximately 30%, but few studies have attempted to correlate depression with quality of life (QOL) in these patients. The present study investigates the association between depression and QOL in people living with HTLV-1. A clinical-epidemiological questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the WHOQOL-Bref were applied to 88 HTLV-1-infected patients (32 with TSP/HAM) at the HTLV Center of the Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, Salvador, Brazil. The prevalence of depression among people living with HTLV-1 was 34.1%. Depression was significantly associated with a poor QOL in the physical, psychological, social relationship and environment domains, when controlling for other variables, such as gender, age, time of knowledge of serological diagnosis and presence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Moreover, patients with TSP/HAM experienced a reduction in their QOL in the physical, psychological and environment domains. Our results showed that depression negatively affects the quality of life of people living with HTLV-1, regardless of the presence of TSP/HAM. Since it is possible to improve a patient's QOL by treating depression, psychological evaluations are strongly recommended as a measure to integrate the treatment protocols of HTLV-1 intervention programs.Quality of Life Research 11/2011; 21(9):1545-50. · 2.41 Impact Factor
- Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 09/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor