Performance of HIV-1 DNA or HIV-1 RNA tests for early diagnosis of perinatal HIV-1 infection during anti-retroviral prophylaxis

Laboratoire de Virologie, Hôpital Necker, AP-HP, Paris, France.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 08/2011; 160(1):60-6.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.06.053
Source: PubMed


To compare performance of testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants receiving preventive antiretroviral therapy.
This substudy of the French multicenter prospective cohort of neonates born to HIV-infected mothers, included 1567 infants tested for HIV with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a single laboratory, receiving post-natal prophylaxis, not breastfed, and having simultaneous HIV-1 DNA and RNA results before 45 days. The performance of PCR was assessed in reference to the 6-month HIV-1 RNA result.
Specificity of both HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 DNA PCR was 100% at all ages (except 99.8% for DNA at birth); sensitivity was 58% (RNA) and 55% (DNA) at birth, and 89% at 1 month, 100% at 3 months for both, and 100% at 6 months (DNA). Concordance between HIV-1 DNA and RNA results was 0.78 and 0.81 (Kappa) at birth and 1 month and 100% at 3 and 6 months. Type of maternal and neonatal prophylaxis had no effect on sensitivity, but influenced viral load.
The performances of testing for HIV-1 DNA and RNA were similar with 100% sensitivity at 3 months. At 1 month during prophylaxis, 11% of infected children had negative PCR results.

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