Variability in chemokine-induced adhesion of human mesenchymal stromal cells
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AIMS. Intravenously applied mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation for numerous clinical indications. However, their capacity to activate shear stress-dependent adhesion to endothelial ligands is incompletely characterized. METHODS. Parallel-plate flow chambers were used to induce firm adhesion of MSC to integrin ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Human MSC were stimulated by chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL15)/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-5), CCL19/MIP-3β chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL8)/interleukin (IL)-8, CXCL12/ stromal derived factor (SDF-1) or CXCL13/B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC). RESULTS. Two MSC isolates responded to three chemokines (either to CCL15, CCL19 and CXCL13, or to CCL19, CXCL12 and CXCL13), two isolates responded to two chemokines (to CCL15 and CCL19, or to CCL19 and CXCL13), and one isolate responded to CCL19 only. In contrast, all tested MSC isolates responded to selectins (P-selectin and E-selectin) or integrin ligand VCAM-1, as visualized by a velocity reduction under flow. CONCLUSIONS. Inter-individual variability of chemokine-induced integrin activation should be considered when evaluating human MSC as cellular therapies.
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ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have an enormous potential for tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. With a potential of differentiation into multiple lineages and immune-suppression, these cells play a key role in tissue remodelling and regeneration. Here a method of hMSC recruitment is described, based on the incorporation of a chemokine in Chitosan (Ch)/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) complexes. Ch is a non-toxic, cationic polysaccharide widely investigated. γ-PGA is a hydrophilic, non-toxic, biodegradable and negatively charged poly-amino acid. Ch and γ-PGA, being oppositely charged, can be combined through electrostatic interactions. These biocompatible structures can be used as carriers for active substances and can be easily modulated in order to control the delivery of drugs, proteins, DNA, etc. Using the layer-by-layer method, Ch and γ-PGA were assembled into polyelectrolyte multilayers films (PEMs) with thickness of 120 nm. The chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was incorporated in these complexes and was continuously released during 120 h. The method of SDF-1 incorporation is of crucial importance for polymers assembly into PEMs and for the release kinetics of this chemokine. The Ch/γ-PGA PEMs with SDF-1 were able to recruit hMSCs, increasing the cell migration up to 6 fold to a maximum of 16.2 ± 4.9 cells/mm2. The controlled release of SDF-1 would be of great therapeutic value in the process of hMSC homing to injured tissues. This is the first study suggesting Ch/γ-PGA PEMs as SDF-1 reservoirs to recruit hMSCs, describing an efficient method of chemokine incorporation that allows a sustained released up to 5 days and that can be easily scaled-up.European cells & materials 01/2012; 23:249-60; discussion 260-1. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that participate in the structural and functional maintenance of connective tissues under normal homeostasis. They also act as trophic mediators during tissue repair, generating bioactive molecules that help in tissue regeneration following injury. MSCs serve comparable roles in cases of malignancy and are becoming increasingly appreciated as critical components of the tumor microenvironment. MSCs home to developing tumors with great affinity, where they exacerbate cancer cell proliferation, motility, invasion and metastasis, foster angiogenesis, promote tumor desmoplasia and suppress anti-tumor immune responses. These multifaceted roles emerge as a product of reciprocal interactions occurring between MSCs and cancer cells and serve to alter the tumor milieu, setting into motion a dynamic co-evolution of both tumor and stromal tissues that favors tumor progression. Here, we summarize our current knowledge about the involvement of MSCs in cancer pathogenesis and review accumulating evidence that have placed them at the center of the pro-malignant tumor stroma.Cell adhesion & migration 05/2012; 6(3):220-30. DOI:10.4161/cam.20875 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The estimated frequency of MSCs in BM is about 0.001-0.01% of total nucleated cells. Most commonly, one applied therapeutic cell dose is about 1 -5 million MSCs/kg body weight, necessitating a reliable, fast and safe expansion system. The limited availability of MSCs demands for an extensive ex vivo amplification step to accumulate sufficient cell numbers. Human platelet lysate (PL) has proven to be a safe and feasible alternative to animal-derived serum as supplement for MSC cultivation. We have investigated the functionally closed automated cell culture hollow fiber bioreactor Quantum® cell expansion system as an alternative novel tool to conventional tissue flasks for efficient clinical-scale MSC isolation and expansion from bone marrow using PL. Cells expanded in the Quantum system fulfilled MSC criteria as shown by flow cytometry and adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity.Cell surface expression of a variety of chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules, and additional MSC markers was monitored for several passages by flow-cytometry. The levels of critical media components like glucose and lactate were analysed. PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB/BB, bFGF, TGF-β1, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, RANTES, GRO, VEGF, sCD40L, IL-6 were assessed using a LUMINEX platform. Originally optimized for the use of fetal calf serum (FCS) as supplement and fibronectin as coating reagent, we succeeded to obtain an average of more than 100x10⁶ of MSCs from as little as 18.8 to 28.6 mL of BM aspirate using PL. We obtained similar yields of MSCs/μL BM in the FCS-containing and the xenogen-free expansion system. The Quantum system reliably produces a cellular therapeutic dose in a functionally closed system that requires minimal manipulation. Both isolation and expansion is possible using FCS or PL as supplement. Coating of the hollow fibres of the bioreactor is mandatory when loading MSCs. Fibronectin, PL and human plasma may serve as coating reagents.Cell Transplantation 10/2012; 22(11). DOI:10.3727/096368912X657990 · 3.57 Impact Factor