Variability in chemokine-induced adhesion of human mesenchymal stromal cells.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AIMS. Intravenously applied mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation for numerous clinical indications. However, their capacity to activate shear stress-dependent adhesion to endothelial ligands is incompletely characterized. METHODS. Parallel-plate flow chambers were used to induce firm adhesion of MSC to integrin ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Human MSC were stimulated by chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL15)/macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-5), CCL19/MIP-3β chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL8)/interleukin (IL)-8, CXCL12/ stromal derived factor (SDF-1) or CXCL13/B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC). RESULTS. Two MSC isolates responded to three chemokines (either to CCL15, CCL19 and CXCL13, or to CCL19, CXCL12 and CXCL13), two isolates responded to two chemokines (to CCL15 and CCL19, or to CCL19 and CXCL13), and one isolate responded to CCL19 only. In contrast, all tested MSC isolates responded to selectins (P-selectin and E-selectin) or integrin ligand VCAM-1, as visualized by a velocity reduction under flow. CONCLUSIONS. Inter-individual variability of chemokine-induced integrin activation should be considered when evaluating human MSC as cellular therapies.
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ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are stromal cells with the ability to proliferate and differentiate into many tissues. Although they represent powerful tools for several therapeutic settings, mechanisms regulating their migration to peripheral tissues are still unknown. Here, we report chemokine receptor expression on human BM-MSCs and their role in mediating migration to tissues. A minority of BM-MSCs (2% to 25%) expressed a restricted set of chemokine receptors (CXC receptor 4 [CXCR4], CX3C receptor 1 [CX3CR1], CXCR6, CC chemokine receptor 1 [CCR1], CCR7) and, accordingly, showed appreciable chemotactic migration in response to the chemokines CXC ligand 12 (CXCL12), CX3CL1, CXCL16, CC chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), and CCL19. Using human pancreatic islets as an in vitro model of peripheral tissue, we showed that islet supernatants released factors able to attract BM-MSCs in vitro, and this attraction was principally mediated by CX3CL1 and CXCL12. Moreover, cells with features of BM-MSCs were detected within the pancreatic islets of mice injected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive BM. A population of bona fide MSCs that also expressed CXCR4, CXCR6, CCR1, and CCR7 could be isolated from normal adult human pancreas. This study defines the chemokine receptor repertoire of human BM-MSCs that determines their migratory activity. Modulation of homing capacity may be instrumental for harnessing the therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs.Blood 08/2005; 106(2):419-27. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to migrate to various tissues. There is little information on the fate and potential therapeutic efficacy of the reinfusion of MSCs following total body irradiation (TBI). We addressed this question using human MSC (hMSCs) infused to nonobese diabetic/ severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice submitted to TBI. Further, we tested the impact of additional local irradiation (ALI) superimposed to TBI, as a model of accidental irradiation. NOD/SCID mice were transplanted with hM-SCs. Group 1 was not irradiated before receiving hMSC infusion. Group 2 received only TBI at a dose of 3.5 Gy, group 3 received local irradiation to the abdomen at a dose of 4.5 Gy in addition to TBI, and group 4 received local irradiation to the leg at 26.5 Gy in addition to TBI. Fifteen days after irradiation, quantitative and spatial distribution of the hMSCs were studied. Histological analysis of mouse tissues confirmed the presence of radio-induced lesions in the irradiated fields. Following their infusion into nonirradiated animals, hMSCs homed at a very low level to various tissues (lung, bone marrow, and muscles) and no significant engraftment was found in other organs. TBI induced an increase of engraftment levels of hMSCs in the brain, heart, bone marrow, and muscles. Abdominal irradiation (AI) as compared with leg irradiation (LI) increased hMSC engraftment in the exposed area (the gut, liver, and spleen). Hind LI as compared with AI increased hMSC engraftment in the exposed area (skin, quadriceps, and muscles). An increase of hMSC engraftment in organs outside the fields of the ALI was also observed. Conversely, following LI, hMSC engraftment was increased in the brain as compared with AI. This study shows that engraftment of hMSCs in NOD/ SCID mice with significantly increased in response to tissue injuries following TBI with or without ALI. ALI induced an increase of the level of engraftment at sites outside the local irradiation field, thus suggesting a distant (abscopal) effect of radiation damage. This work supports the use of MSCs to repair damaged normal tissues following accidental irradiation and possibly in patients submitted to radiotherapy.Stem Cells 05/2006; 24(4):1020-9. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To explore the initial steps by which transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) interact with the vessel wall in the course of extravasation, we studied binding of human MSCs to endothelial cells (ECs). In a parallel plate flow chamber, MSCs bound to human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) similar to peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors at shear stresses of up to 2 dynes/cm(2). This involved rapid extension of podia, rolling, and subsequent firm adhesion that was increased when ECs were prestimulated with TNF-alpha. MSC binding was suppressed when ECs were pretreated with function-blocking anti-P-selectin antibody, and rolling of MSCs was induced on immobilized P-selectin, indicating that P-selectin was involved in this process. Preincubation of HUVECs with anti-VCAM-1 or of MSCs with anti-VLA-4 antibodies suppressed binding of MSCs to HUVECs but did not enhance inhibition by anti-P-selectin, indicating that both P-selectin and VCAM-1 are equally required for this process. Intravital microscopy demonstrated the capacity of MSCs to roll and adhere to postcapillary venules in vivo in a mouse model in a P-selectin-dependent manner. Thus, MSCs interact in a coordinated fashion with ECs under shear flow, engaging P-selectin and VCAM-1/VLA-4.Blood 01/2007; 108(12):3938-44. · 9.06 Impact Factor