Development of a Diphtheria Toxin Based Antiporcine CD3 Recombinant Immunotoxin

Transplantation Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, United States.
Bioconjugate Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.51). 08/2011; 22(10):2014-20. DOI: 10.1021/bc200230h
Source: PubMed


Anti-CD3 immunotoxins, which induce profound but transient T-cell depletion in vivo by inhibiting eukaryotic protein synthesis in CD3+ cells, are effective reagents in large animal models of transplantation tolerance and autoimmune disease therapy. A diphtheria toxin based antiporcine CD3 recombinant immunotoxin was constructed by fusing the truncated diphtheria toxin DT390 with two identical tandem single chain variable fragments (scFv) derived from the antiporcine CD3 monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15. The recombinant immunotoxin was expressed in a diphtheria-toxin resistant yeast Pichia pastoris strain under the control of the alcohol oxidase promoter. The secreted recombinant immunotoxin was purified sequentially with hydrophobic interaction chromatography (Butyl 650 M) followed by strong anion exchange (Poros 50 HQ). The purified antiporcine CD3 immunotoxin was tested in vivo in four animals; peripheral blood CD3+ T-cell numbers were reduced by 80% and lymph node T-cells decreased from 74% CD3+ cells pretreatment to 24% CD3+ cells remaining in the lymph node following 4 days of immunotoxin treatment. No clinical toxicity was observed in any of the experimental swine. We anticipate that this conjugate will provide an important tool for in vivo depletion of T-cells in swine transplantation models.

Download full-text


Available from: Abraham J Matar,
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The porcine CD3 specific monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15 has been used in allo- and xeno-transplantation studies as a porcine CD3 marker and as an effective T cell depletion reagent when conjugated to the diphtheria toxin mutant, CRM9. A recombinant anti-porcine CD3 immuntoxin was recently developed using single-chain variable fragments (scFv) derived from 898H2-6-15. In this study, using published sequence data, we have expressed the porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules in E. coli through inclusion body isolation and in vitro refolding approach. The expressed and refolded porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules include CD3ε, CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3εγ heterodimer, CD3εδ heterodimer, CD3εγ single-chain fusion protein and CD3εδ single-chain fusion protein. These refolded porcine CD3 ectodomain molecules were purified with a strong anion exchange resin Poros 50HQ. ELISA analysis demonstrated that only the porcine CD3εγ ectodomain single-chain fusion protein can bind to the porcine CD3 specific monoclonal antibody 898H2-6-15. The availability of this porcine CD3εγ ectodomain single-chain fusion protein will allow screening for affinity matured variants of scFv derived from 898H2-6-15 to improve the recombinant anti-porcine CD3 immunotoxin. Porcine CD3εγ ectodomain single-chain fusion protein will also be a very useful reagent to study the soluble phase interaction between porcine CD3εγ and porcine CD3 antibodies such as 898H2-6-15.
    Cellular Immunology 05/2012; 276(1-2):162-7. DOI:10.1016/j.cellimm.2012.05.004 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic allograft rejection is a major impediment to long-term transplant success. Humoral immune responses to alloantigens are a growing clinical problem in transplantation, with mounting evidence associating alloantibodies with the development of chronic rejection. Nearly a third of transplant recipients develop de novo antibodies, for which no established therapies are effective at preventing or eliminating, highlighting the need for a nonhuman primate model of antibody-mediated rejection. In this report, we demonstrate that depletion using anti-CD3 immunotoxin (IT) combined with maintenance immunosuppression that included tacrolimus with or without alefacept reliably prolonged renal allograft survival in rhesus monkeys. In these animals, a preferential skewing toward CD4 repopulation and proliferation was observed, particularly with the addition of alefacept. Furthermore, alefacept-treated animals demonstrated increased alloantibody production (100%) and morphologic features of antibody-mediated injury. In vitro, alefacept was found to enhance CD4 effector memory T cell proliferation. In conclusion, alefacept administration after depletion and with tacrolimus promotes a CD4+memory T cell and alloantibody response, with morphologic changes reflecting antibody-mediated allograft injury. Early and consistent de novo alloantibody production with associated histological changes makes this nonhuman primate model an attractive candidate for evaluating targeted therapeutics.
    American Journal of Transplantation 07/2012; 12(9):2395-405. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04074.x · 5.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 3-mo-old, 12-kg, intact, miniature pig presented with severe neurologic signs on day 8 after hematopoietic cell transplantation. This pig had received an immunosuppressive regimen before transplantation that included an antiCD3 immunotoxin for T-cell depletion, 100 cGy of total-body irradiation, and cyclosporine for 45 d. The pig began exhibiting erythematous lesions on posttransplantation day 7. He also demonstrated increased conscious proprioceptive deficits and recumbency but normal mentation. Neurologic signs worsened over several days; the pig became lethargic but remained afebrile. Conjunctival swelling developed on posttransplantation day 9, which subsequently spread to the animal's head, ears and hocks by day 10. Analgesics were given for pain, and cyclosporine levels were decreased. Despite the measures taken, neurologic signs progressed. Given the worsening subcutaneous edema and neurologic status, Escherichia coli infection was suspected, and treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin was instituted. The clinical signs resolved within 12 h after the start of antibiotics. 'Shiga-like' toxin from E. coli can cause peracute toxemia and induce ataxia, paralysis, and recumbency. Other common and pathognomonic findings include periocular edema and variable edema in other subcutaneous regions. A fecal sample demonstrated an overgrowth of gram-negative, lactose-fermenting colonies. On the basis of the clinical presentation, exclusion of other potential conditions compatible with edema and neurologic diseases, physical exam findings, microbiology and the resolution of signs after therapy, the pig was diagnosed with edema disease.
    Comparative medicine 08/2012; 62(4):298-302. · 0.74 Impact Factor
Show more