Relationship between antiretroviral plasma concentration and emergence of HIV-1 resistance mutations at treatment failure.
ABSTRACT The relationship between antiretroviral pharmacokinetic exposure and acquisition of human immunodeficency virus-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutations (DRM) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether antiretroviral plasma concentration could predict the emergence of DRM at treatment failure.
The study cohort comprised retrospectively selected patients with failing antiretroviral regimens for whom a protease inhibitor (PI) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) trough concentration measurement (TDM) had been obtained before failure, a genotypic resistance test (GRT1) had been performed before the TDM, and a genotypic resistance test (GRT2) had been performed at therapeutic failure. Drug levels were classified as undetectable/detectable or subtherapeutic/therapeutic according to limits of quantification of a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet assay or pre-defined efficacy thresholds, respectively. The number of DRM acquired at treatment failure was evaluated by comparing the results of the GRT2 and GRT1.
A total of ten and 57 failure episodes occurred among our patients on NNRTI-based and PI-based regimens, respectively, and included in the evaluation. PI concentration was subtherapeutic in 28.1% of patients, among which the levels were undetectable in 21.1%. Twenty-five (43.9%) patients acquired at least one new PI-DRM according to the GRT2. Patients with undetectable PI levels showed a lower emergence of PI-DRM (minor + major) than those with detectable levels (8.3 vs. 53.3%, p = 0.007). Multivariate analysis confirmed that undetectable PI levels were independent negative predictors of DRM selection. NNRTI measurements were subtherapeutic in 2/10 (20%) patients. NNRTI-DRM were acquired by all patients regardless of NNRTI levels.
A PI measurement showing undetectable drug levels prior to treatment failure predicted the lack of emergence of PI-DRM at failure. These results suggest that PI levels can help clinicians interpret the reasons for treatment failure and guide the type of interventions needed.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the variability of genotypic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 drug-resistance interpretation by available expert systems and its clinical implications, 261 subjects for whom a potent antiretroviral regimen was failing who were starting salvage therapy were evaluated. The association of the genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) of the salvage regimen, according to 11 interpretation systems, with HIV RNA outcomes for 6 months was examined. GSS was highly variable, as determined by the different interpretation systems, and showed independent correlation with changes from baseline HIV RNA levels at 6 months with 5 systems--Stanford hivdb, GuideLines 3.0, Retrogram 1.4, HIVresistanceWeb, and São Paulo University. Most GSSs predicted virologic response in regimens containing stavudine, lamivudine, efavirenz, or indinavir. Selected systems predicted response in regimens containing didanosine, abacavir, or nelfinavir, and no system predicted outcome of boosted protease inhibitors. GSSs predicted changes in HIV RNA levels better in adherent patients than in nonadherent individuals. Interpretation may be improved, and knowledge should be used uniformly throughout different expert systems.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2003; 187(12):1934-43. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the inter-individual and intra-individual plasma concentration variabilities of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) in routine clinical practice and to investigate their relationships with virological failure. We retrospectively enrolled HIV-infected patients undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of NNRTIs and PIs during routine outpatient visits. Plasma drug concentrations were measured by HPLC-UV and were considered therapeutic if above the proposed minimum efficacy trough concentration. Inter-individual and intra-individual variabilities were evaluated through the coefficient of variation (CV). A total of 457 PI and 172 NNRTI plasma concentrations were measured from 363 patients (HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL in 70.8%, median CD4 count 434 cells/mm(3)). NNRTIs showed less inter-individual (CV(inter) 54.8% versus 84.3%) and intra-individual (CV(intra) 19.0% versus 38.1%) pharmacokinetic variabilities than PIs. Intra-individual variability was constantly lower than inter-individual variability for each drug. Subtherapeutic drug concentrations were observed in 106 samples (16.9%). Older age (P = 0.020) and higher viral load (P = 0.013) were associated with subtherapeutic levels. Patients with therapeutic levels had a viral load of <50 copies/mL more frequently than those with subtherapeutic levels (74.8% versus 63.2%, P = 0.020). The estimated proportion with virological failure at 24 weeks was 0.21 in patients with suboptimal baseline drug levels and 0.08 in those with optimal levels (P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, therapeutic drug levels showed an independent negative association with virological failure (P = 0.004). A wide inter-individual and limited intra-individual pharmacokinetic variabilities, together with the demonstration of a concentration-response relationship, suggest that TDM is a useful tool for the clinical management of patients treated with NNRTIs or PIs.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 04/2009; 64(1):109-17. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Limited information exists on the clinical usefulness of drug level monitoring for efavirenz, a once-daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The aim of this study was to determine whether efavirenz plasma concentration monitoring could predict treatment failure and central nervous system (CNS) tolerability. Blood samples were obtained from 130 HIV-infected patients receiving efavirenz in combination with other antiretroviral agents for more than 3 months. Efavirenz plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. An evaluation of CNS side-effects was performed and the viral load, CD4 cell count and other clinical and laboratory data were assessed. In 85 patients, these measures were repeated at 3 month intervals. Efavirenz plasma levels (n = 226) were measured at an average of 14 h after drug intake. Drug concentrations ranged from 125 to 15230 microg/l (median 2188). Large inter-patient (CV 118%) and limited intra-patient (CV 30%) variabilities were observed in efavirenz levels. Virological failure was observed in 50% of patients with low efavirenz levels (< 1000 microg/l) versus 22 and 18% in patients with 1000-4000 microg/l or more than 4000 microg/l, respectively. CNS toxicity was approximately three times more frequent in patients with high efavirenz levels (> 4000 microg/l) compared with patients with 1000-4000 microg/l. Treatment failure and CNS side-effects are associated with low and high efavirenz plasma levels, respectively. The important inter-individual variability in efavirenz levels strongly argues for dose adjustment on the basis of therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize treatment.AIDS 01/2001; 15(1):71-5. · 6.41 Impact Factor