The mast cell, a potent inflammatory cell type, is widely distributed over several tissues, but particularly prominent at the interface exposed to the environment to act in the first line of defense against pathogens. Upon activation mast cells release granules, which contain a large panel of mediators, including neutral proteases (e.g. chymase and tryptase), cathepsins, heparin, histamine and a variety of cytokines and growth factors. While mast cells have been demonstrated to be critically involved in a number of Th2 dominated diseases such as asthma and allergy, recent investigations have now also implicated mast cells in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and acute cardiovascular syndromes. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of mast cells to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and gauge the therapeutic opportunities of mast cell targeted intervention in acute cardiovascular syndromes.
"In this respect, it is of interest that eosinophilic infiltration was found in case of instent restenosis, and eosinophils have been identified as important modulators of restenosis after stent implantation  . Recent findings have also implicated mast cells in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders . Therefore, it is possible to hypothesize that IL-33, released by stromal cells such as endothelial and smooth muscle cells during damage or injury, via activation of different immune cells might play an important role in the process of restenosis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study aim was to determine the predictive value of interleukin (IL)-33, a recently described member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, for the development of in-stent restenosis (ISR). IL-33 serum levels were measured in 387 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of whom 193 had stable angina, 93 non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 101 ST-elevation MI (STEMI), respectively. Blood was taken directly before and 24 h after stent implantation. The presence of ISR was initially evaluated by clinical means after six to eight months. When presence of myocardial ischemia was suspected, coronary angiography was performed to confirm the suspected diagnosis of ISR. Clinical ISR was present in total in 34 patients (8.8%). IL-33 was detectable in 185 patients and was below detection limit in 202 patients. In patients with decreased IL-33 (n = 95), unchanged or non-detectable levels (n = 210) or increased levels of IL-33 after PCI (n = 82), ISR-rate was 2.1%, 9.5% and 14.6%, respectively (p < 0.05). Accordingly, patients with ISR showed a significant increase of IL-33 upon PCI (p < 0.05). This association was independent from clinical presentation and risk factors as well as numbers and type of stents. In patients with both stable and unstable coronary artery disease, an increase of IL-33 serum levels after stent implantation is associated with a higher rate of in-stent restenosis.
"On the other hand, epidemiology, histopathology and experimental studies point toward a proatherogenic role for mast cells, involving tryptase . According to the cholesterol balance theory of atherogenesis, atherosclerosis is a cholesterol storage disease of the arterial intima in which cholesterol accumulation results from an imbalance between cholesterol influx and efflux . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells participate in atherogenesis by releasing cytokines to induce vascular cell protease expression. Tryptase is expressed highly in human atherosclerotic lesions and the inhibition of tryptase activity hampers its capacity to maintain cholesterol inside macrophague foam cells. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating tryptase levels and subclinical atherosclerosis through estimation of carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) as surrogate marker for increased cardiovascular risk in obese and non-obese subjects.
Circulating tryptase levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 228 subjects. Atherosclerosis (c-IMT>0.9 mm) was evaluated ultrasonographically.
Significant positive associations were evident between circulating tryptase levels and BMI, fat mass, glycated haemoglobin, fasting insulin, HOMAIR, fasting triglycerides and ultrasensitive PCR (p<0.05 from linear-trend ANOVA). The positive association between tryptase levels and insulin resistance parameters, suggested a glucose homeostasis impairment in individuals with higher tryptase levels. The negative asociation between tryptase levels and HDL-cholesterol supports the proatherogenic role of this protease (p<0.0001). Circulating tryptase levels were strongly associated with c-IMT measurements (p<0.0001 from linear-trend ANOVA), and were higher in subjects with presence of carotid plaque (p<0.0001). Tryptase levels (beta = 0.015, p = 0.001) contributed independently to subclinical atherosclerosis variance after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors (BMI, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol).
Circulating tryptase level is associated to obesity related parameters and has a close relation with various metabolic risk factors. Moreover, serum tryptase level was independently associated with c-IMT, suggesting its potential use as a surrogate marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in obese subjects.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97014. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097014 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The central role of MCs in these disorders is now widely Disease Markers accepted . Additionally, MCs are considered to be critical effectors in many human inflammatory diseases  , and the core of different diseases including liver hepatitis , rheumatoid arthritis , arteriosclerosis , chronic graft-versus-host disease , and ischemic heart disease . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite years of intensive investigation that has been made in understanding prostate cancer, it remains one of the major men's health issues and the leading cause of death worldwide. It is now ascertained that prostate cancer emerges from multiple spontaneous and/or inherited alterations that induce changes in expression patterns of genes and proteins that function in complex networks controlling critical cellular events. It is now accepted that several innate and adaptive immune cells, including T- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells (MCs), infiltrate the prostate cancer. All of these cells are irregularly scattered within the tumor and loaded with an assorted array of cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory and cytotoxic mediators. This complex framework reflects the diversity in tumor biology and tumor-host interactions. MCs are well-established effector cells in Immunoglobulin-E (Ig-E) associated immune responses and potent effector cells of the innate immune system; however, their clinical significance in prostate cancer is still debated. Here, these controversies are summarized, focusing on the implications of these findings in understanding the roles of MCs in primary prostate cancer.
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