The rs5743836 polymorphism in TLR9 confers a population-based increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
ABSTRACT Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been associated with immunological defects, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Given the link between immune dysfunction and NHL, genetic variants in toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been regarded as potential predictive factors of susceptibility to NHL. Adequate anti-tumoral responses are known to depend on TLR9 function, such that the use of its synthetic ligand is being targeted as a therapeutic strategy. We investigated the association between the functional rs5743836 polymorphism in the TLR9 promoter and risk for B-cell NHL and its major subtypes in three independent case-control association studies from Portugal (1160 controls, 797 patients), Italy (468 controls, 494 patients) and the US (972 controls, 868 patients). We found that the rs5743836 polymorphism was significantly overtransmitted in both Portuguese (odds ratio (OR), 1.85; P=7.3E-9) and Italian (OR, 1.84; P=6.0E-5) and not in the US cohort of NHL patients. Moreover, the increased transcriptional activity of TLR9 in mononuclear cells from patients harboring rs5743836 further supports a functional effect of this polymorphism on NHL susceptibility in a population-dependent manner.
SourceAvailable from: Alexander Maximiliaan Eggermont[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an evolutionarily conserved group of enzymatically inactive, single membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a wide panel of exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Besides constituting a crucial component of the innate immune response to bacterial and viral pathogens, TLRs appear to play a major role in anticancer immunosurveillance. In line with this notion, several natural and synthetic TLR ligands have been intensively investigated for their ability to boost tumor-targeting immune responses elicited by a variety of immunotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions. Three of these agents are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or equivalent regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients: the so-called bacillus Calmette-Guérin, monophosphoryl lipid A, and imiquimod. However, the number of clinical trials testing the therapeutic potential of both FDA-approved and experimental TLR agonists in cancer patients is stably decreasing, suggesting that drug developers and oncologists are refocusing their interest on alternative immunostimulatory agents. Here, we summarize recent findings on the use of TLR agonists in cancer patients and discuss how the clinical evaluation of FDA-approved and experimental TLR ligands has evolved since the publication of our first Trial Watch dealing with this topic.
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ABSTRACT: The stimulation of TLRs by pathogen-derived molecules leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Because uncontrolled inflammation can be life threatening, TLR regulation is important; however, few studies have identified the signaling pathways that contribute to the modulation of TLR expression. In this study, we examined the relationship between activation and the transcriptional regulation of TLR9. We demonstrate that infection of primary human epithelial cells, B cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells with dsDNA viruses induces a regulatory temporary negative-feedback loop that blocks TLR9 transcription and function. TLR9 transcriptional downregulation was dependent on TLR9 signaling and was not induced by TLR5 or other NF-κB activators, such as TNF-α. Engagement of the TLR9 receptor induced the recruitment of a suppressive complex, consisting of NF-κBp65 and HDAC3, to an NF-κB cis element on the TLR9 promoter. Knockdown of HDAC3 blocked the transient suppression in which TLR9 function was restored. These results provide a framework for understanding the complex pathways involved in transcriptional regulation of TLR9, immune induction, and inflammation against viruses.The Journal of Immunology 09/2014; 193(7). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1400249 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis incorporating 34 case-control studies from 19 articles involving 12,197 cases and 13,488 controls was conducted to assess the effects of three genetic variants of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9): rs187084, rs352140, and rs5743836. Studies on associations between TLR9 polymorphisms and cancer risk were systematically searched in electronic databases. The reported odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled to assess the strength of any associations. The results showed that the rs187084 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of cancer (CC vs TC+TT: OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.02-1.28), specifically cervical cancer (C vs T: OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.05-1.34; TC vs TT: OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.10-1.58; CC vs TT: OR=1.31, 95% CI= 1.03-1.68; CC+TC vs TT: OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.11-1.56), and that this association was significantly positive in Caucasians (CC vs. TC+TT: OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.01-1.38). The rs352140 polymorphism had a protective effect on breast cancer (GA vs GG: OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.66-0.89), whereas the rs5743836 polymorphism was likely protective for digestive system cancers (CC+TC vs TT: OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.66-0.98). In conclusion, our results suggest that the rs187084 polymorphism may be associated with an elevated cancer risk, whereas polymorphisms of rs352140 and rs5743836 may play protective roles in the development of breast and digestive system cancers, respectively. From the results of this meta-analysis further large-scale case-control studies are warranted to verify associations between TLR9 polymorphisms and cancer.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 10/2014; 15(19):8279-85. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.19.8279 · 1.50 Impact Factor