Styloidogenic jugular venous compression syndrome: diagnosis and treatment: case report.
ABSTRACT Intracranial venous hypertension is known to be associated with venous outflow obstruction. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical venous outflow obstruction causing pseudotumor cerebri.
We report 2 patients presenting with central venous outflow obstruction secondary to osseous compression of the internal jugular veins at the craniocervical junction. The point of jugular compression was between the lateral tubercle of C1 and a prominent, posteriorly located styloid process. In both cases, catheter venography showed high-grade jugular stenosis at the level of C1 with an associated pressure gradient. The dominant jugular vein was decompressed after the styloid process was resected. Postoperative imaging confirmed resolution of the jugular stenosis and normalization of preoperative pressure gradients. In both cases, the symptoms of intracranial hypertension resolved.
Intracranial venous hypertension may result from extrinsic osseous compression of the jugular veins at the skull base. Although rare, this phenomenon is important to recognize because primary stenting not only is ineffective but also may actually exacerbate the outflow obstruction. The osseous impingement of the dominant jugular vein can be relieved via a decompressive styloidectomy, and the clinical results can be excellent.
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ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of PTS including idiopathic intracranial hypertension or 'BIH', remains controversial. The older literature frequently referred to pathology in the cerebral venous drainage but more modern imaging techniques (CT and early MR) failed to reveal gross venous pathology. The role of impaired cranial venous outflow has recently been re-examined in the light of new methods of investigation (advanced MR venography and direct microcatheter venography with manometry) and of treatment (venous sinus stenting). Venous sinus obstruction in PTS is a more common factor in the pathogenesis of the condition than previously recognised. Venous obstruction may be primary, that is, it is the underlying aetiological factor in PTS. Venous sinus obstruction may also be secondary to raised CSF pressure which may exacerbate problems with intracranial compliance and raised CSF pressure. Early experience with venous stenting suggests that it may be a helpful treatment for patients with PTS but more experience and longer follow-up is required to define the subgroups of patients for whom it is most appropriate.Advances and technical standards in neurosurgery 02/2005; 30:107-74.
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ABSTRACT: The high pressures documented in the intracranial venous sinuses in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) could be the result of focal stenotic lesions in the lateral sinuses obstructing cranial venous outflow. To explore the relation between venous sinus disease and IIH. 12 patients with refractory IIH had dilatation and stenting of the venous sinuses after venography and manometry had shown intracranial venous hypertension proximal to stenoses in the lateral sinuses. Intrasinus pressures were recorded before and after the procedure and correlated with clinical outcome. Intrasinus pressures were variably reduced by stenting. Five patients were rendered asymptomatic, two were improved, and five were unchanged. The importance of venous sinus disease in the aetiology of IIH is probably underestimated. Lateral sinus stenting shows promise as an alternative treatment to neurosurgical intervention in intractable cases.Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 01/2004; 74(12):1662-6. · 4.92 Impact Factor
Article: Pseudotumor cerebri.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure without hydrocephalus or mass lesion and with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. Although often considered to be "idiopathic," detailed investigation has revealed a high incidence of venous outflow abnormalities in PTC syndrome patients. The thought that elevated intracranial venous sinus pressure is a "universal mechanism" for PTC syndrome of varying etiologies has been called into question by a study indicating that the increased venous pressure in idiopathic PTC patients is caused by the elevated intracranial pressure and not the reverse, suggesting that "the chicken is the CSF pressure elevation and the egg is the venous sinus pressure elevation." Vitamin A toxicity may play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic PTC. The treatment of PTC has two major goals: the alleviation of symptoms and preservation of visual function. When medical therapy fails or when visual dysfunction deteriorates, surgical therapies for PTC should be considered. The two main procedures performed include lumboperitoneal shunt and optic nerve sheath fenestration. Because of the association of PTC with venous sinus hypertension, some authors are considering venous sinus stenting for refractory cases of PTC. It is still unclear if primary treatment of the observed venous stenosis benefits patients with idiopathic PTC. This should be no surprise, as it is not certain whether the stenoses are the cause or the result of idiopathic PTC.Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 04/2004; 4(2):111-6. · 3.78 Impact Factor