Molecular Fingerprints of the Human Fecal Microbiota From 9 to 18 Months Old and the Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to monitor changes in the fecal microbiota from 9 to 18 months and to investigate the effect of increasing dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fecal microbiota.
In a double-blind controlled trial with random allocation to daily supplementation with 5 mL of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 months of age, stool samples were collected from 132 healthy Danish infants. Molecular fingerprints of the bacterial DNA were obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP).
The T-RFLP profiles indicated that a few T-RFs became dominant with age (bp100 and 102, both presumed to be Bacteroidetes) concomitantly with an overall increase in the microbial diversity (P = 0.04). Breast-feeding influenced both the T-RFLP profiles at 9 months and the changes from 9 to 18 months, and breast-feeding cessation during the trial modified the response to the dietary oils. In the FO group, the increase in bp102 was significantly reduced among children weaned before compared with those weaned during the trial (P = 0.027), whereas the increase in bp100 was reduced in the preweaned children of the SO group relative to those weaned during the trial (P = 0.004). This was supported by intervention group differences in the changes in bp102 and bp100 among the earlier weaned children (P = 0.06 and P = 0.09, respectively).
Cessation of breast-feeding played a dominant role relative to developmental changes in the fecal microbiota from 9 to 18 months. FO compared with SO supplementation affected changes in large bacterial groups, but only among children who had stopped breast-feeding before 9 months of age.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated whether n-3LCPUFA affected immune function in late infancy and explored effect-modification by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and links to intestinal microbiota. Infants (n=105) were randomized to fish oil (FO, 1.2 g/d n-3LCPUFA) or sunflower oil (SO)-supplements from age 9–18 months. Immune function was assessed by ex vivo cytokine production in stimulated blood and plasma immunoglobulinE (IgE). We genotyped functional SNPs in PPARG2 and COX2 and analyzed fecal microbiota by 16 S-rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. FO compared to SO reduced L. paracasei-stimulated IL-6 at 18 months (P=0.03, n=104). This effect was most pronounced among infants wild-type for PPARG2-Pro12Ala and/or COX2-T8473C (P<0.05). Predominant bacterial fragments were associated with 18 months IgE in all infants (P=0.004) (bp100) and with IL-6 production among infants weaned before 9 months (P=0.047) (bp102). Thus, FO reduced IL-6 in a genotype-modified manner. The microbiota was partly linked to IL-6 and IgE, not directly to FO.Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 11/2014; 94. DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2014.10.007 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Early Nutrition Academy supported a systematic review of human studies on the roles of pre- and postnatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) published from 2008 to 2013 and an expert workshop that reviewed the information and developed recommendations, considering particularly Asian populations. An increased supply of n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation. Pregnant women should achieve an additional supply ≥200 mg docosahexaenic acid (DHA)/day, usually achieving a total intake ≥300 mg DHA/day. Higher intakes (600-800 mg DHA/day) may provide greater protection against early preterm birth. Some studies indicate beneficial effects of pre- and postnatal DHA supply on child neurodevelopment and allergy risk. Breast-feeding is the best choice for infants. Breast-feeding women should get ≥200 mg DHA/day to achieve a human milk DHA content of ∼0.3% fatty acids. Infant formula for term infants should contain DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) to provide 100 mg DHA/day and 140 mg AA/day. A supply of 100 mg DHA/day should continue during the second half of infancy. We do not provide quantitative advice on AA levels in follow-on formula fed after the introduction of complimentary feeding due to a lack of sufficient data and considerable variation in the AA amounts provided by complimentary foods. Reasonable intakes for very-low-birth weight infants are 18-60 mg/kg/day DHA and 18-45 mg/kg/day AA, while higher intakes (55-60 mg/kg/day DHA, ∼1% fatty acids; 35-45 mg/kg/day AA, ∼0.6-0.75%) appear preferable. Research on the requirements and effects of LC-PUFA during pregnancy, lactation, and early childhood should continue. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 09/2014; 65(1):49-80. DOI:10.1159/000365767 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of the immune and gastrointestinal systems of infants. In the present study, we investigated whether increased salmon consumption during pregnancy, maternal weight gain during pregnancy or mode of infant feeding alter the markers of gut immune defence and inflammation. Women (n 123) who rarely ate oily fish were randomly assigned to continue consuming their habitual diet or to consume two 150 g portions of farmed salmon per week from 20 weeks of pregnancy to delivery. Faecal samples were collected from the mothers (n 75) at 38 weeks of gestation and from their infants (n 38) on days 7, 14, 28 and 84 post-partum. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to determine faecal microbiota composition and ELISA to measure faecal secretory IgA (sIgA) and calprotectin concentrations. There was no effect of salmon consumption on maternal faecal microbiota or on maternal or infant faecal sIgA and calprotectin concentrations. The degree of weight gain influenced maternal faecal microbiota, and the mode of infant feeding influenced infant faecal microbiota. Faecal samples collected from infants in the salmon group tended to have lower bacterial counts of the Atopobium cluster compared with those collected from infants in the control group (P= 0·097). This difference was significant in the formula-fed infants (P< 0·05), but not in the exclusively breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the impact of oily fish consumption during pregnancy on maternal and infant gut microbiota composition is limited, but significant differences are associated with maternal weight gain during pregnancy and mode of infant feeding.The British journal of nutrition 10/2013; DOI:10.1017/S0007114513003097 · 3.34 Impact Factor