4-aminopyridine induces apoptosis of human acute myeloid leukemia cells via increasing [Ca2+]i through P2X7 receptor pathway.
ABSTRACT 4-AP, a voltage-gated potassium channel blocker, was identified to exert critical pro-apoptotic properties in various types of cancer cells. The present study aims to explore the effect of 4-AP on the apoptosis of human AML cells and the underlying mechanism. We found 4-AP inhibited the proliferation and induces apoptosis in both AML cell lines and primary cultured human AML cells. The apoptosis of AML cells after 4-AP treatment was further confirmed by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase 3 and 9. 4-AP inhibited Kv currents in NB(4), HL-60 and THP-1 cells. Furthermore, 4-AP induced significant increment in [Ca(2+)](i), which were inhibited by KN-62, a specific blocker of P(2)X(7) receptors. KN-62 also abrogated 4-AP induced apoptosis. Knockdown of P(2)X(7) receptor by small interfering RNA blocked the effect of 4-AP. Conclusively, this study indicated that 4-AP promotes apoptosis in human AML cells via increasing [Ca(2+)](i) through P(2)X(7) receptor.
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ABSTRACT: Humans maintain a constant cell number throughout their lifespan. This equilibrium of cell number is accomplished when cell proliferation and cell death are kept balanced, achieving a steady-state cell number. Abnormalities in cell growth or cell death can lead to an overabundance of cells known as neoplasm or tumours. While the perception of cancer is often that of an uncontrollable rate of cell growth or increased proliferation, a decrease in cell death can also lead to tumour formation. Most cells when detached from their normal tissue die. However, cancer cells evade cell death, tipping the balance to an overabundance of cell number. Therefore, overcoming this resistance to cell death is a decisive factor in the treatment of cancer. Ion channels play a critical role in cancer in regards to cell proliferation, malignant angiogenesis, migration and metastasis. Additionally, ion channels are also known to be critical components of apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the modes of cell death focusing on the ability of cancer cells to evade apoptosis. Specifically, we focus on the role ion channels play in controlling and regulating life/death decisions and how they can be used to overcome resistance to apoptosis in the treatment of cancer.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 01/2014; 369(1638):20130104. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ion transport across the cell membrane mediated by channels and carriers participate in the regulation of tumour cell survival, death and motility. Moreover, the altered regulation of channels and carriers is part of neoplastic transformation. Experimental modification of channel and transporter activity impacts tumour cell survival, proliferation, malignant progression, invasive behaviour or therapy resistance of tumour cells. A wide variety of distinct Ca(2+) permeable channels, K(+) channels, Na(+) channels and anion channels have been implicated in tumour growth and metastasis. Further experimental information is, however, needed to define the specific role of individual channel isoforms critically important for malignancy. Compelling experimental evidence supports the assumption that the pharmacological inhibition of ion channels or their regulators may be attractive targets to counteract tumour growth, prevent metastasis and overcome therapy resistance of tumour cells. This short review discusses the role of Ca(2+) permeable channels, K(+) channels, Na(+) channels and anion channels in tumour growth and metastasis and the therapeutic potential of respective inhibitors.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 01/2014; 369(1638):20130108. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The effect of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), beta blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on the prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is largely unknown. We collected data on the use of these medications on 1043 patients with AML excluding promyelocytic leukemia diagnosed and treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center between 2000 and 2012. Treatment with either amlodipine or diltiazem predicted a worse overall survival (HR 1.6 95% CI 1.22-2.06, p<0.0001). There was no difference in survival depending on whether the patients were taking beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The effect of CCBs on survival was independent from the NCCN risk classification, age, performance status, response to treatment, year of diagnosis and CD34 levels, assessed by flow cytometry (HR=1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.80, p=0.02). Treatment with either amlodipine or diltiazem predicts worse survival in patients with AML independent of known prognostic factors.Leukemia & lymphoma 03/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor