4-AP, a voltage-gated potassium channel blocker, was identified to exert critical pro-apoptotic properties in various types of cancer cells. The present study aims to explore the effect of 4-AP on the apoptosis of human AML cells and the underlying mechanism. We found 4-AP inhibited the proliferation and induces apoptosis in both AML cell lines and primary cultured human AML cells. The apoptosis of AML cells after 4-AP treatment was further confirmed by the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of caspase 3 and 9. 4-AP inhibited Kv currents in NB(4), HL-60 and THP-1 cells. Furthermore, 4-AP induced significant increment in [Ca(2+)](i), which were inhibited by KN-62, a specific blocker of P(2)X(7) receptors. KN-62 also abrogated 4-AP induced apoptosis. Knockdown of P(2)X(7) receptor by small interfering RNA blocked the effect of 4-AP. Conclusively, this study indicated that 4-AP promotes apoptosis in human AML cells via increasing [Ca(2+)](i) through P(2)X(7) receptor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptors for extracellular nucleotides are widely expressed by mammalian cells. They mediate a large array of responses ranging from growth stimulation to apoptosis, from chemotaxis to cell differentiation and from nociception to cytokine release, as well as neurotransmission. Pharma industry is involved in the development and clinical testing of drugs selectively targeting the different P1 nucleoside and P2 nucleotide receptor subtypes. As described in detail in the present review, P2 receptors are expressed by all tumours, in some cases to a very high level. Activation or inhibition of selected P2 receptor subtypes brings about cancer cell death or growth inhibition. The field has been largely neglected by current research in oncology, yet the evidence presented in this review, most of which is based on in vitro studies, although with a limited amount from in vivo experiments and human studies, warrants further efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of purinoceptor targeting in cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cerebellum plays crucial roles in controlling sensorimotor functions. The neural output from the cerebellar cortex is transmitted solely by Purkinje cells (PCs), whose impairment causes cerebellar ataxia. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13) is an autosomal dominant disease, and SCA13 patients exhibit cerebellar atrophy and cerebellar symptoms. Recent studies have shown that missense mutations in the voltage-gated K(+) channels Kv3.3 are responsible for SCA13. In the rodent brain, Kv3.3 mRNAs are expressed most strongly in PCs, suggesting that the mutations severely affect PCs in SCA13 patients. Nevertheless, how these mutations affect the function of Kv3 in PCs and consequently the morphology and neuronal excitability of PCs remains unclear. To address these questions, we used lentiviral vectors to express mutant mouse Kv3.3 (mKv3.3) channels harboring an R424H missense mutation, which corresponds to the R423H mutation in the Kv3.3 channels of SCA13 patients, in mouse cerebellar cultures. R424H mutant-expressing PCs showed decreased outward current density, broadened action potentials, and elevated basal [Ca(2+)]i compared with PCs expressing wild-type mKv3.3 subunits or those expressing GFP alone. Moreover, expression of R424H mutant subunits induced impaired dendrite development and cell death selectively in PCs, both of which were rescued by blocking P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels under the culture conditions. We therefore concluded that expression of R424H mutant subunits in PCs markedly affects the function of endogenous Kv3 channels, neuronal excitability, and eventually basal [Ca(2+)]i, leading to cell death. These results suggest that PCs in SCA13 patients also exhibit similar defects in PC excitability and induced cell death, which may explain the pathology of SCA13.
The Journal of Physiology 11/2013; 592(1). DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2013.264309 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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