Analysis of relapses in anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
ABSTRACT The clinical characteristics of patients with relapsing anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis are not well-defined. In this study, we report the clinical profile and outcome of relapses in a series of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
We did a retrospective review of relapses that occurred in 25 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Relapses were defined as any new psychiatric or neurologic syndrome, not explained by other causes, which improved after immunotherapy or, less frequently, spontaneously.
A total of 13 relapses were identified in 6 patients. Four of them had several, 2 to 4, relapses. There was a median delay of 2 years (range 0.5 to 13 years) for the first relapse. Median relapse rate was 0.52 relapses/patient-year. Relapse risk was higher in patients who did not receive immunotherapy in the first episode (p = 0.009). Most cases (53%) presented partial syndromes of the typical anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Main symptoms of relapses were speech dysfunction (61%), psychiatric (54%), consciousness-attention disturbance (38%), and seizures (31%). Three relapses (23%) presented with isolated atypical symptoms suggestive of brainstem-cerebellar involvement. An ovarian teratoma was detected at relapse in only 1 patient (17%). Relapses did not add residual deficit to that caused by the first episode.
Relapses in anti-NMDAR encephalitis are common (24%). They may occur many years after the initial episode. Relapses may present with partial aspects or with isolated symptoms of the full-blown syndrome. Immunotherapy at first episode reduces the risk of relapses.
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ABSTRACT: Fatal insomnia (FI) is the first diagnosis to be considered by most neurologists when approaching a patient presenting with total insomnia followed by personality and cognitive changes, disturbance of alertness, autonomic hyperactivation and movement abnormalities. We report the case of a 30year-old male patient who presented with total insomnia followed by episodes of psychomotor restlessness resembling anxiety attacks. Twenty days later, he developed refractory convulsive status epilepticus with admission to Intensive Care Unit. He progressed to a state of reduced alertness and responsiveness, presenting periods of agitation with abnormal dyskinetic movements, periods of autonomic instability and central hypoventilation. Workup revealed antibodies against N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Immunotherapy treatment led to a very significant improvement with the patient presenting only slight frontal lobe dysfunction after one year of recovery. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis first presenting with total insomnia. Our aim is to alert that anti-NMDAR encephalitis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of FI, especially in sporadic cases. Distinguishing the two conditions is very important as, contrarily to the fatal disclosure of FI, anti-NMDAR encephalitis is potentially reversible with adequate treatment even after severe and prolonged disease.Journal of the neurological sciences 10/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A review of the published literature found 60 congenital and acquired disorders with symptoms that include psychosis in youth. The prevalence, workup, genetics, and associated neuropsychiatric features of each disorder are described. Eighteen disorders (30%) have distinct phenotypes (doorway diagnoses); 18 disorders (30%) are associated with intellectual disability; and 43 disorders (72%) have prominent neurologic signs. Thirty-one disorders (52%) can present without such distinct characteristics, and are thus more easily overlooked. A systematic and cost-effective differential diagnostic approach based on estimated prevalence and most prominent associated signs is recommended.Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 10/2013; 22(4):581-608. · 2.88 Impact Factor
- Journal of the neurological sciences 03/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor