Emergence and Rapid Regional Spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae
ABSTRACT Background. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging antibiotic resistance threat with demonstrated epidemic potential. Methods. We conducted an outbreak investigation of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae among patients of acute and long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) in 4 adjacent counties in Indiana and Illinois from 1 January 2008 through 31 December 2008 (cases). The study used traditional and molecular epidemiologic methods and an adaptation of social network analysis ("exposure network analysis"). Results. Clinical records for 40 (95%) of 42 patients were available. Patients were mostly older with multiple comorbid conditions. Eleven patients (27.5%) died during the index hospitalization or were discharged to hospice; 23 (57.5%) were discharged to a nursing home, and 4 (10.0%) were discharged to home. One LTACH (LTACH-A) was central to the regional outbreak: 24 (60%) of 40 cases were linked to LTACH-A, and at least 10 patients (25%) acquired KPC there. Of 16 cases not linked to LTACH-A, 12 (75%) were linked to 3 nursing homes. Only 4 patients (10%) definitely acquired KPC during an acute care hospital stay. Molecular typing revealed the 31 available KPC-positive K. pneumoniae isolates to be similar and to cluster with epidemic multilocus sequence type 258; 2 KPC-positive Escherichia coli isolates were unique. Conclusions. We observed extensive transfer of KPC-positive patients throughout the exposure network of 14 acute care hospitals, 2 LTACHs, and 10 nursing homes. Although few cases were identified at most institutions, many facilities were affected. Successful control of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae will require a coordinated, regional effort among acute and long-term health care facilities and public health departments.
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ABSTRACT: The emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is an important threat to global health. Reported outcomes of infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are poor. Very few options remain for the treatment of these virulent organisms. Antibiotics which are currently in use to treat CRE infections include aminoglycosides, polymyxins, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and temocillin. In addition, the role of combination therapy, including carbapenem containing regimens, remains to be defined. There are several important concerns regarding all of these treatment options such as limited efficacy, increasing reports of resistance, and specific toxicities. Data from retrospective studies favor combination therapy over single-agent therapy for the treatment of CRE bloodstream infections. In summary, new antibiotics are greatly needed, as is additional prospective research.Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 01/2013; 75(2). DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.11.009 · 2.57 Impact Factor
- European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 05/2015; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are an increasing burden among healthcare facilities. We assessed facility-level perceived importance of and responses to various MDROs. DESIGN A pilot survey to assess staffing, knowledge, and the perceived importance of and response to various multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) SETTING Acute care and long-term healthcare facilities METHODS In 2012, a survey was distributed to infection preventionists at ~300 healthcare facilities. Pathogens assessed were Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, multidrug-resistant (defined as bacterial resistance to ≥3 antibiotic classes) Pseudomonas, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli. RESULTS A total of 74 unique facilities responded, including 44 skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and 30 acute care facilities (ACFs). While ACFs consistently isolated patients with active infections or colonization due to these MDROs, SNFs had more variable responses. SNFs had more multi-occupancy rooms and reported less specialized training in infection control and prevention than did ACFs. Of all facilities with multi-occupancy rooms, 86% employed a cohorting practice for patients, compared with 50% of those without multi-occupancy rooms; 20% of ACFs and 7% of SNFs cohorted staff while caring for patients with the same MDRO. MRSA and C. difficile were identified as important pathogens in ACFs and SNFs, while CRE importance was unknown or was considered important in <50% of SNFs. CONCLUSION We identified stark differences in human resources, knowledge, policy, and practice between ACFs and SNFs. For regional control of emerging MDROs like CRE, there is an opportunity for public health officials to provide targeted education and interventions. Education campaigns must account for differences in audience resources and baseline knowledge. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0): 1-6.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 04/2015; 36(4):1-6. DOI:10.1017/ice.2014.78 · 3.94 Impact Factor