No evidence for pathogenic variants or maternal effect of ZFP57 as the cause of Beckwith–Wiedemann Syndrome

Center for Applied Human Molecular Genetics, The Kennedy Center, Glostrup, Denmark.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG (Impact Factor: 4.35). 08/2011; 20(1):119-21. DOI: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.140
Source: PubMed


Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome, which, in 50-60% of sporadic cases, is caused by hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 differentially methylated region (DMR) at chromosome 11p15.5. The underlying defect of this hypomethylation is largely unknown. Recently, recessive mutations of the ZFP57 gene were reported in patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 1, showing hypomethylation at multiple imprinted loci, including KCNQ1OT1 DMR in some. The aim of our study was to determine whether ZFP57 alterations were a genetic cause of the hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR in patients with BWS. We sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS probands and in 23 available mothers to test for a maternal effect. We identified three novel, presumably benign sequence variants in ZFP57; thus, we found no evidence for ZFP57 alterations as a major cause in sporadic BWS cases.

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Available from: Karen brondum-nielsen, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "However, no underlying genetic defect for BWS or SRS HIL cases is so far known, except for a single case with a homozygous sequence mutation in the NLRP2 gene in the mother of two siblings with BWS and hypomethylation at KCNQ1OT1 DMR, in which one of the patients also had hypomethylation at PEG1/MEST DMR (7q32) (17). We and others (18,19) have sequenced ZFP57 in 27 BWS patients with hypomethylation of KCNQ1OT1 DMR and 30 SRS patients with hypomethylation at H19 DMR, respectively, and could not find disease-associated alterations, but these studies did not necessarily include cases with HIL. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus 1 (TNDM1) is the most common cause of diabetes presenting at birth. Approximately 5% of the cases are due to recessive ZFP57 mutations, causing hypomethylation at the TNDM locus and other imprinted loci (HIL). This has consequences for patient care, because it has impact on the phenotype and recurrence risk for families. We have determined the genotype, phenotype, and epigenotype of the first 10 families to alert health professionals to this newly described genetic subgroup of diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The 10 families (14 homozygous/compound heterozygous individuals) with ZFP57 mutations were ascertained through TNDM1 diagnostic testing. ZFP57 was sequenced in probands and their relatives, and the methylation levels at multiple maternally and paternally imprinted loci were determined. Medical and family histories were obtained, and clinical examination was performed.RESULTSThe key clinical features in probands were transient neonatal diabetes, intrauterine growth retardation, macroglossia, heart defects, and developmental delay. However, the finding of two homozygous relatives without diabetes and normal intelligence showed that the phenotype could be very variable. The epigenotype always included total loss of methylation at the TNDM1 locus and reproducible combinations of differential hypomethylation at other maternally imprinted loci, including tissue mosaicism.CONCLUSIONS There is yet no clear genotype-epigenotype-phenotype correlation to explain the variable clinical presentation, and this results in difficulties predicting the prognosis of affected individuals. However, many cases have a more severe phenotype than seen in other causes of TNDM1. Further cases and global epigenetic testing are needed to clarify this.
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    ABSTRACT: Demars J, Gicquel C. Epigenetic and genetic disturbance of the imprinted 11p15 region in Beckwith–Wiedemann and Silver–Russell syndromes. Genomic imprinting is a particularly attractive example of epigenetic regulation leading to the parental-origin-specific expression of genes. In several ways, the 11p15 imprinted region is an exemplary model for regulation of genomic imprinting. The two imprinted domains are controlled by imprinting control regions (ICRs) which carry opposite germ line imprints and they are regulated by two major mechanisms of imprinting control. Dysregulation of 11p15 genomic imprinting results in two fetal growth disorders [Silver–Russell (SRS) and Beckwith–Wiedemann (BWS) syndromes], with opposite growth phenotypes. BWS and SRS result from abnormal imprinting involving either, both domains or only one of them, with ICR1 and ICR2 more often involved in SRS and BWS respectively. DNA methylation defects affecting ICR1 or ICR2 account for approximately 60% of SRS and BWS patients. Recent studies have identified new cis-acting regulatory elements, as well as new trans-acting factors involved in the regulation of 11p15 imprinting, therefore establishing new mechanisms of BWS and SRS. Those studies also showed that, apart of CTCF, other transcription factors, including factors of the pluripotency network, play a crucial role in the regulation of 11p15 genomic imprinting. Those new findings have direct consequences in molecular testing, risk assessment and genetic counseling of BWS and SRS patients.
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