Novel Cryo-Imaging of the Glioma Tumor Microenvironment Reveals Migration and Dispersal Pathways in Vivid Three-Dimensional Detail

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Biomedical Engineering, Neuroscience, NFCR Center for Molecular Imaging, and Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 08/2011; 71(17):5932-40. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1553
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Traditional methods of imaging cell migration in the tumor microenvironment include serial sections of xenografts and standard histologic stains. Current molecular imaging techniques suffer from low resolution and difficulty in imaging through the skull. Here we show how computer algorithms can be used to reconstruct images from tissue sections obtained from mouse xenograft models of human glioma and can be rendered into three-dimensional images offering exquisite anatomic detail of tumor cell dispersal. Our findings identify human LN-229 and rodent CNS-1 glioma cells as valid systems to study the highly dispersive nature of glioma tumor cells along blood vessels and white matter tracts in vivo. This novel cryo-imaging technique provides a valuable tool to evaluate therapeutic interventions targeted at limiting tumor cell invasion and dispersal.

Download full-text


Available from: Susan M Burden-Gulley, Aug 09, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor microenvironment plays important roles in tumor development and metastasis. Features of the tumor microenvironment that are significantly different from normal tissues include acidity, hypoxia, overexpressed proteases and so on. Therefore, these features can serve as not only biomarkers for tumor diagnosis but also theraputic targets for tumor treatment. Imaging modalities such as optical, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been intensively applied to investigate tumor microenvironment. Various imaging probes targeting pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment were thus well developed. In this review, we will focus on recent examples on fluorescent probes for optical imaging of tumor microenvironment. Construction of these fluorescent probes were based on characteristic feature of pH, hypoxia and proteases in tumor microenvironment. Strategies for development of these fluorescent probes and applications of these probes in optical imaging of tumor cells or tissues will be discussed in this review paper.
    American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 01/2013; 3(1):1-15. · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Detection of an extracellular cleaved fragment of a cell-cell adhesion molecule represents a new paradigm in molecular recognition and imaging of tumors. We previously demonstrated that probes that recognize the cleaved extracellular domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu (PTPmu) label human glioblastoma brain tumor sections and the main tumor mass of intracranial xenograft gliomas. In this article, we examine whether one of these probes, SBK2, can label dispersed glioma cells that are no longer connected to the main tumor mass. Live mice with highly dispersive glioma tumors were injected intravenously with the fluorescent PTPmu probe to test the ability of the probe to label the dispersive glioma cells in vivo. Analysis was performed using a unique three-dimensional (3D) cryo-imaging technique to reveal highly migratory and invasive glioma cell dispersal within the brain and the extent of colabeling by the PTPmu probe. The PTPmu probe labeled the main tumor site and dispersed cells up to 3.5 mm away. The cryo-images of tumors labeled with the PTPmu probe provide a novel, high-resolution view of molecular tumor recognition, with excellent 3D detail regarding the pathways of tumor cell migration. Our data demonstrate that the PTPmu probe recognizes distant tumor cells even in parts of the brain where the blood-brain barrier is likely intact. The PTPmu probe has potential translational significance for recognizing tumor cells to facilitate molecular imaging, a more complete tumor resection and to serve as a molecular targeting agent to deliver chemotherapeutics to the main tumor mass and distant dispersive tumor cells.
    International Journal of Cancer 04/2013; 132(7). DOI:10.1002/ijc.27838 · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumors improves the specificity of MRI by using targeted probes conjugated to contrast-generating metals. The limitation of this approach is in the identification of a target molecule present in sufficient concentration for visualization and the development of a labeling reagent that can penetrate tumor tissue with the fast kinetics required for use in a clinical setting. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPµ is a transmembrane protein that is continuously proteolyzed in the tumor microenvironment to generate a high concentration of extracellular fragment that can be recognized by the SBK2 probe. We conjugated the SBK2 peptide to a gadolinium chelate [SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3] to test whether the SBK2 probe could be developed as an MR molecular imaging probe. When intravenously injected into mice bearing flank tumors of human glioma cells, SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 labeled the tumors within 5 minutes with a high level of contrast for up to 2 hours post-injection. The contrast enhancement of SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 was significantly higher than that observed with a current MRI macrocyclic gadolinium chelate (Gadoteridol, ProHance) alone or a scrambled control. These results demonstrate that SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA)3 labeling of the PTPµ extracellular fragment is a more specific MR molecular imaging probe than ProHance or a scrambled control. Consequently, the SBK2 probe may be more useful than the current gold standard reagent for MRI to identify tumors and to co-register tumor borders during surgical resection.
    Translational oncology 06/2013; 6(3):329-37. DOI:10.1593/tlo.12490 · 3.40 Impact Factor
Show more