93-kDa twin-domain serine protease inhibitor (Serpin) has a regulatory function on the beetle Toll proteolytic signaling cascade.
ABSTRACT Serpins are protease inhibitors that play essential roles in the down-regulation of extracellular proteolytic cascades. The core serpin domain is highly conserved, and typical serpins are encoded with a molecular size of 35-50 kDa. Here, we describe a novel 93-kDa protein that contains two complete, tandemly arrayed serpin domains. This twin serpin, SPN93, was isolated from the larval hemolymph of the large beetle Tenebrio molitor. The N-terminal serpin domain of SPN93 forms a covalent complex with the Spätzle-processing enzyme, a terminal serine protease of the Toll signaling cascade, whereas the C-terminal serpin domain of SPN93 forms complexes with a modular serine protease and the Spätzle-processing enzyme-activating enzyme, which are two different enzymes of the cascade. Consequently, SPN93 inhibited β-1,3-glucan-mediated Toll proteolytic cascade activation in an in vitro system. Site-specific proteolysis of SPN93 at the N-terminal serpin domain was observed after activation of the Toll proteolytic cascade in vivo, and down-regulation of SPN93 by RNAi sensitized β-1,3-glucan-mediated larval death. Therefore, SPN93 is the first serpin that contains twin tandemly arrayed and functionally active serpin domains that have a regulatory role in the larval Toll proteolytic signaling cascade.
- SourceAvailable from: Yoshiaki Tanaka[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example, Tribolium has retained more ancestral genes involved in cell-cell communication than Drosophila, some being expressed in the growth zone crucial for axial elongation in short-germ development. Systemic RNA interference in T. castaneum functions differently from that in Caenorhabditis elegans, but nevertheless offers similar power for the elucidation of gene function and identification of targets for selective insect control.Nature 05/2008; 452(7190):949-55. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Drosophila immune system discriminates between various types of infections and activates appropriate signal transduction pathways to combat the invading microorganisms. The Toll pathway is required for the host response against fungal and most Gram-positive bacterial infections. The sensing of Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by the pattern recognition receptors PGRP-SA and GNBP1 that cooperate to detect the presence of infections in the host. Here, we report that GNBP3 is a pattern recognition receptor that is required for the detection of fungal cell wall components. Strikingly, we find that there is a second, parallel pathway acting jointly with GNBP3. The Drosophila Persephone protease activates the Toll pathway when proteolytically matured by the secreted fungal virulence factor PR1. Thus, the detection of fungal infections in Drosophila relies both on the recognition of invariant microbial patterns and on monitoring the effects of virulence factors on the host.Cell 01/2007; 127(7):1425-37. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kallistatin is a serpin with a unique P1 Phe, which confers an excellent inhibitory specificity toward tissue kallikrein. In this study, we investigated the P3-P2-P1 residues (residues 386-388) of human kallistatin in determining inhibitory specificity toward human tissue kallikrein by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Human kallistatin mutants with 19 different amino acid substitutions at each P1, P2, or P3 residue were created and purified to compare their kallikrein binding activity. Complex formation assay showed that P1 Arg, P1 Phe (wild type), P1 Lys, P1 Tyr, P1 Met, and P1 Leu display significant binding activity with tissue kallikrein among the P1 variants. Kinetic analysis showed the inhibitory activities of the P1 mutants toward tissue kallikrein in the order of P1 Arg > P1 Phe > P1 Lys >/= P1 Tyr > P1 Leu >/= P1 Met. P1 Phe displays a better selectivity for human tissue kallikrein than P1 Arg, since P1 Arg also inhibits several other serine proteinases. Heparin distinguishes the inhibitory specificity of kallistatin toward kallikrein versus chymotrypsin. For the P2 and P3 variants, the mutants with hydrophobic and bulky amino acids at P2 and basic amino acids at P3 display better binding activity with tissue kallikrein. The inhibitory activities of these mutants toward tissue kallikrein are in the order of P2 Phe (wild type) > P2 Leu > P2 Trp > P2 Met and P3 Arg > P3 Lys (wild type). Molecular modeling of the reactive center loop of kallistatin bound to the reactive crevice of tissue kallikrein indicated that the P2 residue required a long and bulky hydrophobic side chain to reach and fill the hydrophobic S2 cleft generated by Tyr(99) and Trp(219) of tissue kallikrein. Basic amino acids at P3 could stabilize complex formation by forming electrostatic interaction with Asp(98J) and hydrogen bond with Gln(174) of tissue kallikrein. Our results indicate that tissue kallikrein is a specific target proteinase for kallistatin.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2000; 275(49):38457-66. · 4.65 Impact Factor