Effect of fluorine addition on the biological performance of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti by aerosol deposition.
ABSTRACT Dense and well-adherent fluoridated hydroxyapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2-x )F( x ), FHA] coatings with various amounts of fluorine contents (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) were deposited on commercially available pure titanium by aerosol deposition using FHA powders in order to investigate the effect of fluorine content on the properties of the coatings. FHA powders with different compositions were synthesized by solid-state reactions of hydroxyapatite (HA) and fluorapatite (FA) powders at various ratios. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that fluoride ions were successfully incorporated into the HA lattice for both the FHA powders and the FHA coatings. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed dense microstructures and good substrate adhesion of the coatings with high adhesion strengths of more than 33.1 MPa. The dissolution behavior in a tris-buffered saline solution indicated that the dissolution rate of the FHA coatings decreased as a result of increasing the fluorine content in the coatings. In addition, in vitro cellular tests, including cell attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells grown on the coatings, demonstrated that an FHA coating with a moderate degree of F(-) substitution, x = 1.0, had a stronger stimulating effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. These results suggested that there exists an optimum fluorine content level in the FHA coatings for the best long-term stability and cellular responses.