Determination of cut-off levels for on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation based on functional CYP2C19 gene variants in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
Thrombosis Research (Impact Factor: 3.13). 08/2011; 128(6):e130-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.thromres.2011.07.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Carriers of reduced-function CYP2C19 allele on antiplatelet therapy show diminished platelet inhibition and higher rate of clinical risk. The purpose of this study was to determine cut-off levels of VerifyNow P2Y12 system associated with effective inhibition of on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation to predict carriers of CYP2C19 reduced-function allele among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
We enrolled 202 consecutive patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and treated with clopidogrel. All patients underwent CYP2C19 genotyping and measurement of residual platelet aggregation by VerifyNow system.
Carriers of CYP2C19 reduced-function allele constituted 131 (65%) of 202 CAD patients. Platelet inhibition measured by P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) and %inhibition was diminished in carriers compared with noncarriers (PRU: 290.0±81.2 vs 217.6±82.4, p<0.001, %inhibition: 17.9±17.8 vs 35.5±22.8, p<0.001, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified PRU and %inhibition as significant predictors of carrier state [odds ratio (OR) 4.95; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 2.49 to 9.85; p<0.001, OR 5.55; 95%CI: 2.80 to 10.99; p<0.001, respectively]. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that PRU and %inhibition were significant predictors of carrier state [area under the curve (AUC) 0.736 (95%CI: 0.664 to 0.808; p<0.001), AUC 0.727 (95%CI: 0.651 to 0.803; p<0.001), respectively]. The cut-off levels of PRU and %inhibition were 256 and 26.5% for the identification of carriers.
Our results suggested that the cut-off levels of PRU and %inhibition to discriminate carriers of CYP2C19 reduced-function allele from noncarriers are potentially useful clinically to provide optimal clopidogrel therapy in patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is some controversy regarding the effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism on clinical outcome in patients with dual antiplatelet therapy. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular event, but the association between the possession of CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles and clinical outcome according to the presence of CKD is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CKD status modifies the association of CYP2C19 polymorphism in predicting outcomes in a prospective cohort study.
    Thrombosis Research 08/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We systematically investigated how 11 overlapping meta-analyses on the association between CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel could yield contradictory outcomes. The results of the meta-analyses differed because more recent meta-analyses included more primary studies and some had not included conference abstracts. Conclusions differed because between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were handled differently across meta-analyses. All meta-analyses on the clinical end point observed significant heterogeneity and several reported evidence for publication bias, but only one out of eight statistically significant meta-analyses concluded that therefore the association was unproven and one other refrained from quantifying a pooled estimate because of heterogeneity. For the end point stent thrombosis, all meta-analyses reported statistically significant associations with CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles with no statistically significant evidence for heterogeneity, but only three had investigated publication bias and also found evidence for it. One study therefore concluded that there was no evidence for an association, and one other doubted the association because of a high level of heterogeneity. In summary, meta-analyses on the association between CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel differed widely with regard to assessment and interpretation of heterogeneity and publication bias. The substantial heterogeneity and publication bias implies that personalized antiplatelet management based on genotyping is not supported by the currently available evidence.Genet Med advance online publication 19 June 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.76.
    Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 06/2014; · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CYP2C19 genotype on clinical outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). CYP2C19 polymorphism and DM are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during antiplatelet therapy following stent implantation. Platelet reactivity during clopidogrel therapy and CYP2C19 polymorphism were measured in 519 CAD patients (males 70%, age 69years) treated with stent placement. Patients were divided into two groups; DM (n=249), and non-DM (n=270), and clinical events were evaluated according to the carrier state, which included at least one CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele. The level of platelet reactivity and incidence of cardiovascular events were significantly different between Carriers and non-Carriers of the non-DM (platelet reactivity: 4501+/-1668 versus 3691+/-1714AUmin, P<0.01; events, 32/178 versus 2/92, P<0.01, respectively), however, there was no difference in clinical outcome in the DM group (events, 34/168 versus 14/81, respectively, P=0.57). Multivariate analysis identified CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele carriage as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in non-DM, but not in DM (non-DM, HR 7.180, 95% CI, 1.701 to 30.298, P=0.007; DM, HR 1.374, 95% CI, 0.394 to 4.792, P=0.618). The impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on clinical outcome seems to be more significant in non-DM compared with DM in patients with coronary stents.
    Thrombosis Research 04/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor