Determination of cut-off levels for on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation based on functional CYP2C19 gene variants in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.
ABSTRACT Carriers of reduced-function CYP2C19 allele on antiplatelet therapy show diminished platelet inhibition and higher rate of clinical risk. The purpose of this study was to determine cut-off levels of VerifyNow P2Y12 system associated with effective inhibition of on-clopidogrel platelet aggregation to predict carriers of CYP2C19 reduced-function allele among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
We enrolled 202 consecutive patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and treated with clopidogrel. All patients underwent CYP2C19 genotyping and measurement of residual platelet aggregation by VerifyNow system.
Carriers of CYP2C19 reduced-function allele constituted 131 (65%) of 202 CAD patients. Platelet inhibition measured by P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) and %inhibition was diminished in carriers compared with noncarriers (PRU: 290.0±81.2 vs 217.6±82.4, p<0.001, %inhibition: 17.9±17.8 vs 35.5±22.8, p<0.001, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified PRU and %inhibition as significant predictors of carrier state [odds ratio (OR) 4.95; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 2.49 to 9.85; p<0.001, OR 5.55; 95%CI: 2.80 to 10.99; p<0.001, respectively]. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that PRU and %inhibition were significant predictors of carrier state [area under the curve (AUC) 0.736 (95%CI: 0.664 to 0.808; p<0.001), AUC 0.727 (95%CI: 0.651 to 0.803; p<0.001), respectively]. The cut-off levels of PRU and %inhibition were 256 and 26.5% for the identification of carriers.
Our results suggested that the cut-off levels of PRU and %inhibition to discriminate carriers of CYP2C19 reduced-function allele from noncarriers are potentially useful clinically to provide optimal clopidogrel therapy in patients with stable CAD undergoing PCI.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Whether addition of cilostazol is superior to increasing dose of clopidogrel in patients with hyporesponsiveness to chronic clopidogrel therapy is unknown. Materials and Methods: We studied 73 patients with hyporesponsiveness to clopidogrel on standard dual antiplatelet therapy for more than 2 weeks. Clopidogrel hyporesponsiveness was defined as percent inhibition of P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) <30% on VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Patients were randomly assigned to increased dose of clopidogrel (aspirin 100 mg+clopidogrel 150 mg daily: group A, n=38) or to receiving additional cilostazol (aspirin 100 mg+clopidogrel 75 mg+cilostazol 100 mg bid daily: group B, n=35). Results: Baseline percent inhibition of PRU and PRU was similar between 2 groups (13.0±10.2% versus 11.8±9.7%, p=0.61, and 286.3±54.7 versus 295.7±53.7, p=0.44, respectively). At follow-up, percent inhibition of PRU was higher and PRU was lower significantly in group B than in group A (38.5±17.9% versus 28.3±16.6%, p=0.02, and 207.3±68.2 versus 241.3±76.7, p=0.050, respectively). Among those still showing hyporesponsiveness to clopidogrel at follow-up (21 patients in group A, 10 patients in group B), 12 patients completed further crossover study. Compared to the baseline, magnitude of change in percent inhibition of PRU and PRU showed an improved tendency after the crossover (from 2.7±8.7% to 15.8±18.4%, p=0.08, and from -18.6±58.0 to -61.9±84.3, p=0.08). Conclusion: Adjunctive cilostazol improved clopidogrel responsiveness better than the higher maintenance dose of clopidogrel in hyporesponsive patients with chronic clopidogrel therapy.Yonsei medical journal 01/2013; 54(1):34-40. · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Published data suggests that the presence of CYP2C19*2 or *3 loss of function (LOF) alleles is indicative of increased platelet aggregation and a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events after clopidogrel administration. We sought to determine cut-off values using three different assays for prediction of the CYP2C19 phenotype in Korean percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients. We enrolled 244 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation who were receiving clopidogrel and aspirin maintenance therapy for one month or more. Platelet reactivity was assessed with light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (VN). The CYP2C19 genotype was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and snapshot method. The frequency of CYP2C19 LOF allele carriers was 58.6%. The cut-off values from LTA, MEA and VerifyNow for the identification of LOF allele carriers were as follows: 10 µM ADP-induced LTA ≥ 48 %, VN > 242 PRU and MEA ≥ 37 U. Between the three tests, correlation was higher between LTA vs. VN assays (r = 0.69) and LTA vs. MEA (r = 0.56), with moderate agreement (κ = 0.46 and κ = 0.46), but between VN assay and MEA, both devices using whole blood showed a lower correlation (r = 0.42) and agreement (κ = 0.3). Our results provide guidance regarding cut-off levels for LTA, VerifyNow and MEA assays to detect the CYP2C19 LOF allele in patients during dual antiplatelet maintenance therapy.Platelets 08/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of CYP2C19 genotype on clinical outcome in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). CYP2C19 polymorphism and DM are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during antiplatelet therapy following stent implantation. Platelet reactivity during clopidogrel therapy and CYP2C19 polymorphism were measured in 519 CAD patients (males 70%, age 69years) treated with stent placement. Patients were divided into two groups; DM (n=249), and non-DM (n=270), and clinical events were evaluated according to the carrier state, which included at least one CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele. The level of platelet reactivity and incidence of cardiovascular events were significantly different between Carriers and non-Carriers of the non-DM (platelet reactivity: 4501+/-1668 versus 3691+/-1714AUmin, P<0.01; events, 32/178 versus 2/92, P<0.01, respectively), however, there was no difference in clinical outcome in the DM group (events, 34/168 versus 14/81, respectively, P=0.57). Multivariate analysis identified CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele carriage as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in non-DM, but not in DM (non-DM, HR 7.180, 95% CI, 1.701 to 30.298, P=0.007; DM, HR 1.374, 95% CI, 0.394 to 4.792, P=0.618). The impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on clinical outcome seems to be more significant in non-DM compared with DM in patients with coronary stents.Thrombosis Research 04/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor