Efficacy of adulticidal and larvicidal properties of botanical extracts against Haemaphysalis bispinosa, Hippobosca maculata, and Anopheles subpictus.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to investigate the adulticidal and larvicidal activity of dried leaf hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera, Manilkara zapota, Ipomoea staphylina, and Acalypha indica against the adults of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasites were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate parasitic effects; however, the percent parasitic mortality observed in the crude leaf hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of N. nucifera and M. zapota against H. bispinosa were 80, 74, 72, and 100 and 100, 83, 74, and 91, respectively, and the activity for I. staphylina and A. indica against Hip. maculata were 100, 93, 87, and 66 and 78, 90, 87, and 100 at 2,000 ppm, respectively; the larvicidal activity for the same extracts of I. staphylina against A. subpictus were 76, 82, 84, and 100 at 100 ppm, respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in the leaf methanol extract of N. nucifera, hexane extract of M. zapota and leaf hexane extract of I. staphylina, and methanol extract of A. indica against the adults of H. bispinosa and Hip. maculata with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 437.14 and 200.81, and 415.14 and 280.72 ppm, 1,927.57 and 703.52 ppm, and 1,647.70 and 829.39 ppm, respectively. The effective larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of I. staphylina against A. subpictus with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 10.39 and 37.71 ppm, respectively. Therefore, this study provides the first report on the adulticidal and larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of H. bispinosa, Hip. maculata, and the medically important vector A. subpictus.