Occurrence and distribution of benzothiazole in the Schwarzbach watershed (Germany).
ABSTRACT This study quantifies the regional distribution of the micropollutant benzothiazole (BT) in river water by sampling 15 river sites in the Schwarzbach watershed (about 400 km(2)) from November 2008 to February 2010. Additionally, wastewater samples from three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Germany were analyzed. BT was detected in all wastewater influent and effluent samples as well as in all river water samples collected downstream of wastewater discharge. This corroborates the ubiquitous occurrence of BT in the aqueous environment. Concentrations were between 58 and 856 ng L(-1) in the river water. The observed mean concentration at the outlet of the investigated catchment was 109 ng L(-1). With only a few exceptions, temporal and spatial variations of BT concentrations in river water were low. Rather similar BT concentrations over a wide range of river discharge indicate that dilution along the mainstream is negligible and, thus, supports the hypothesis that paved surface runoff during rain events is an important BT source not only for wastewater influent but also for river water. This was supported by detecting the highest BT concentrations at sampling locations close to the dense highway network around the city of Frankfurt. Since BT was also detected in river water collected from locations that were clearly unaffected by wastewater effluent discharge, surface runoff must be considered as a diffuse source of BT in river water.
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ABSTRACT: Challenging tasks, increasing demands, and new generations of powerful analytical instruments initiated considerable progress in aquatic environmental analysis and led to a considerable improvement of analytical performance during the last few years. The ever growing number of emerging pollutants is tackled by specific and highly sensitive analytical methods with detection limits of a few nanogram per liter and even lower. Wide-scope monitoring techniques and multiclass and multiresidue analysis allow for the simultaneous determination of hundreds of compounds. The high mass resolution capability and mass accuracy of advanced mass spectrometric instruments, i.e., time-of-flight (TOF) MS or Fourier transform (FT)-Orbitrap MS, enable combined target and non-target analysis, including the identification of metabolites and abiotic degradation products. This minireview highlights some of the most recent developments in the trace analysis of important organic water pollutants and focuses on some specific groups of emerging contaminants, i.e., pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, disinfection by-products, surfactants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds, benzotriazoles, and benzothiazoles, as well as on the identification of transformation products and on non-target analysis. References were selected according to their exemplary and innovative character and to their practical relevance.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 02/2012; 94(1):11-28. · 3.69 Impact Factor