Scale-up of antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa is accompanied by increasing HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in drug-naive patients
ABSTRACT To evaluate the frequency and progression over time of the WHO-defined transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) among antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV-1-infected patients in Cameroon.
We analyzed HIV-1 DRM data generated from 369 ART-naive individuals consecutively recruited between 1996 and 2007 in urban and rural areas in Cameroon.
HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping was performed in the pol gene using plasma samples and surveillance DRMs were identified using the 2009 WHO-DRM list.
We observed in Yaounde, the capital city, an increasing prevalence of DRMs over time: 0.0% (none of 61 participants) in 1996-1999; 1.9% (one of 53 participants) in 2001; 4.1% (two of 49 participants) in 2002; and 12.3% (10 of 81 participants) in 2007. In the rural areas with more recently implemented ART programs, we found DRMs in six of 125 (4.8%) ART-naive individuals recruited in 2006-2007. DRMs identified in both areas included resistance mutations to protease inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) that might impair the efficacy of available first-line and second-line treatments.
This report showed an increase in transmitted DRMs in areas where antiretroviral drugs were introduced earlier, although other factors such as natural viral polymorphisms and acquired DRMs through exposure to antiretroviral cannot be totally excluded. Further surveillances are needed to confirm this evolution and inform public health policies on adequate actions to help limit the selection and transmission of drug-resistant HIV, while scaling up access to ART in developing countries.
- The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10/2011; 12(4):261. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70280-8 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance on the response to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has not been assessed. We studied pretreatment drug resistance and virological, immunological, and drug-resistance treatment outcomes in a large prospective cohort. HIV-1 infected patients in the PharmAccess African Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring (PASER-M) cohort started non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART at 13 clinical sites in six countries, from 2007 to 2009. We used the International Antiviral Society-USA drug resistance mutation list and the Stanford algorithm to classify participants into three pretreatment drug resistance categories: no pretreatment drug resistance, pretreatment drug resistance with fully active ART prescribed, or pretreatment drug resistance with reduced susceptibility to at least one prescribed drug. We assessed risk factors of virological failure (≥400 copies per mL) and acquired drug resistance after 12 months of ART by use of multilevel logistic regression with multiple imputations for missing data. CD4 cell count increase was estimated with linear mixed models. Pretreatment drug resistance results were available for 2579 (94%) of 2733 participants; 2404 (93%) had no pretreatment drug resistance, 123 (5%) had pretreatment drug resistance to at least one prescribed drug, and 52 (2%) had pretreatment drug resistance and received fully active ART. Compared with participants without pretreatment drug resistance, the odds ratio (OR) for virological failure (OR 2·13, 95% CI 1·44-3·14; p<0·0001) and acquired drug-resistance (2·30, 1·55-3·40; p<0·0001) was increased in participants with pretreatment drug resistance to at least one prescribed drug, but not in those with pretreatment drug resistance and fully active ART. CD4 count increased less in participants with pretreatment drug resistance than in those without (35 cells per μL difference after 12 months; 95% CI 13-58; p=0·002). At least three fully active antiretroviral drugs are needed to ensure an optimum response to first-line regimens and to prevent acquisition of drug resistance. Improved access to alternative combinations of antiretroviral drugs in sub-Saharan Africa is warranted. The Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs.The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10/2011; 12(4):307-17. DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70255-9 · 19.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical trials have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV infection. Consequently, PrEP may soon be used for epidemic control. We model the dynamic interactions that will occur between treatment programs and potential PrEP interventions in resource-constrained countries. We determine the consequences for HIV transmission and drug resistance. We use response hypersurface modeling to predict the effect of PrEP on decreasing transmission as a function of effectiveness, adherence and coverage. We predict PrEP will increase need for second-line therapies (SLT) for treatment-naïve individuals, but could significantly decrease need for SLT for treatment-experienced individuals. If the rollout of PrEP is carefully planned it could increase the sustainability of treatment programs. If not, need for SLT could increase and the sustainability of treatment programs could be compromised. Our results show the optimal strategy for rolling out PrEP in resource-constrained countries is to begin around the "worst" treatment programs.Scientific Reports 12/2011; 1:185. DOI:10.1038/srep00185 · 5.58 Impact Factor