Epidemiology of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Incidence, Predictors, and Outcomes

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 4.37). 09/2011; 118(3):583-91. DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318229e6de
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate the incidence, describe the mortality, and identify independent predictors of peripartum cardiomyopathy, a very serious cardiovascular complication of pregnancy associated with maternal morbidity and mortality among otherwise healthy women without prior heart disease.
We identified all cases of diagnosed heart failure that occurred among women within 1 month before to 5 months after delivery of a liveborn neonate in Kaiser Permanente Northern California delivery hospitals between 1995 and 2004. Incident peripartum cardiomyopathy was confirmed from medical records documenting dilated cardiomyopathy with reduced left ventricular systolic function after excluding women with prior heart failure or valvular disease. Data sources included medical records, electronic clinical databases, and state birth and death files.
Among 227,224 eligible women, we confirmed 110 recognized peripartum cardiomyopathy cases (incidence: 4.84 per 10,000 live births, 95% confidence interval 3.98-5.83). Independent predictors included maternal age of 25 years or older, non-Hispanic African American and Filipino groups, parity of 4 or greater, multiple gestation, severe anemia, pre-existing and pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome. Maternal death rate (per 1,000 person-years) was higher among cases (6.12) than noncases (0.23; P<.001). Neonates whose mothers developed peripartum cardiomyopathy experienced poorer clinical outcomes.
Within a large, diverse northern California population, 1 of every 2,066 women delivering a liveborn neonate had recognized, confirmed peripartum cardiomyopathy, which was associated with higher maternal and neonatal death rates and worse neonatal outcomes. Several readily available patient characteristics can be used to identify women at risk for this severe pregnancy complication.

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    ABSTRACT: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is an uncommon disease of pregnancy, occurring in about 1 in 2000 live births, and is characterized by the development of heart failure, due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. It is associated with high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality. Cardiac disease is the leading cause of maternal death in the UK: PPCM accounts for about 17% of these. Clinical findings of decompensated heart failure (HF) are often masked by the normal physiological changes seen in pregnancy making the diagnosis challenging. A high index of suspicion is essential-prompting referral for echocardiogram, which is crucial for diagnosis. Favourable prognosis is dependent on the early initiation of HF medications. Although full recovery occurs in around half of cases, left ventricular systolic dysfunction persists in a significant proportion of patients with PPCM and the risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies is high. The pathophysiology of PPCM is under intense research. We present four patients with PPCM and a review of the literature. Owing to the diagnostic challenge of PPCM and decompensated HF in pregnant mothers and its high mortality rate without treatment, prompt investigation and referral are key to improving maternal survival.
    01/2013; 2013:563158. DOI:10.1155/2013/563158
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    Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2013; 121(4):879-80. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e31828a6ebb · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background-The reported incidence of peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) in the United States varies widely. Furthermore, limited information is available on the temporal trends in incidence and outcomes of PPCM. Methods and Results-We queried the 2004-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all women aged 15 to 54 years with the diagnosis of PPCM. Temporal trends in incidence (per 10 000 live births), maternal major adverse events (MAE; defined as in-hospital mortality, cardiac arrest, heart transplant, mechanical circulatory support, acute pulmonary edema, thromboembolism, or implantable cardioverter defibrillator/permanent pacemaker implantation), cardiogenic shock, and mean length of stay were analyzed. From 2004 to 2011, we identified 34 219 women aged 15 to 54 years with PPCM. The overall PPCM rate was 10.3 per 10 000 (or 1 in 968) live births. PPCM incidence increased from 8.5 to 11.8 per 10 000 live births (P-trend<0.001) over the past 8 years. MAE occurred in 13.5% of patients. There was no temporal change in MAE rate, except a small increase in in-hospital mortality and mechanical circulatory support (P-trend<0.05). Cardiogenic shock increased from 1.0% in 2004 to 4.0% in 2011 (P-trend<0.001). Mean length of stay decreased during the study period. Conclusion-From 2004 to 2011, the incidence of PPCM has increased in the United States. Maternal MAE rates overall have remained unchanged while cardiogenic shock, utilization of mechanical circulatory support, and in-hospital mortality have increased during the study period. Further study of the mechanisms underlying these adverse trends in the incidence and outcomes of PPCM are warranted.
    Journal of the American Heart Association 04/2014; 3(3). DOI:10.1161/JAHA.114.001056


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