Article

IL-36R ligands are potent regulators of dendritic and T cells

Division of Rheumatology and Department of Pathology-Immunology, University of Geneva School of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 08/2011; 118(22):5813-23. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-05-356873
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT IL-36α (IL-1F6), IL-36β (IL-1F8), and IL-36γ (IL-1F9) are members of the IL-1 family of cytokines. These cytokines bind to IL-36R (IL-1Rrp2) and IL-1RAcP, activating similar intracellular signals as IL-1, whereas IL-36Ra (IL-1F5) acts as an IL-36R antagonist (IL-36Ra). In this study, we show that both murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes constitutively express IL-36R and respond to IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ. IL-36 induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-12, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-23 by BMDCs with a more potent stimulatory effect than that of other IL-1 cytokines. In addition, IL-36β enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, and MHC class II by BMDCs. IL-36 also induced the production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells and cultured splenocytes. These stimulatory effects were antagonized by IL-36Ra when used in 100- to 1000-fold molar excess. The immunization of mice with IL-36β significantly and specifically promoted Th1 responses. Our data thus indicate a critical role of IL-36R ligands in the interface between innate and adaptive immunity, leading to the stimulation of T helper responses.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Emiliana Rodriguez, Jun 18, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
145 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The interleukin-1 gene family encodes a group of related proteins that exhibit a remarkable pleiotropy in the context of health and disease. The set of indispensable functions they control suggests that these genes should be found in all eukaryotic species. The ligands and receptors of this family have been primarily characterised in man and mouse. The genomes of most non-mammalian animal species sequenced so far possess all of the IL-1 receptor genes found in mammals. Yet, strikingly, very few of the ligands are identifiable in non-mammalian genomes. Our recent identification of two further IL-1 ligands in the chicken warranted a critical reappraisal of the evolution of this vitally important cytokine family. This review presents substantial data gathered across multiple, divergent metazoan genomes to unambiguously trace the origin of these genes. With the hypothesis that all of these genes, both ligands and receptors, were formed in a single ancient ancestor, extensive database mining revealed sufficient evidence to confirm this. It therefore suggests that the emergence of mammals is unrelated to the expansion of the IL-1 family. A thorough review of this cytokine family in the chicken, the most extensively studied amongst non-mammalian species, is also presented. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-014-0780-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Immunogenetics 05/2014; 66(7-8). DOI:10.1007/s00251-014-0780-7 · 2.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Constitutively active RAS plays a central role in the development of human cancer and is sufficient to induce tumors in two-stage skin carcinogenesis. RAS-mediated tumor formation is commonly associated with up-regulation of cytokines and chemokines that mediate an inflammatory response considered relevant to oncogenesis. In this study, we report that mice lacking IL-1R or MyD88 are less sensitive to topical skin carcinogenesis than their respective wild-type (WT) controls. MyD88−/− or IL-1R−/− keratinocytes expressing oncogenic RAS are hyperproliferative and fail to up-regulate proinflammatory genes or down-regulate differentiation markers characteristic of RAS-expressing WT keratinocytes. Although RAS-expressing MyD88−/− keratinocytes form only a few small tumors in orthotopic grafts, IL-1R–deficient RAS-expressing keratinocytes retain the ability to form tumors in orthotopic grafts. Using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, we find that the differentiation and proinflammatory effects of oncogenic RAS in keratinocytes require the establishment of an autocrine loop through IL-1α, IL-1R, and MyD88 leading to phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB activation. Blocking IL-1α–mediated NF-κB activation in RAS-expressing WT keratinocytes reverses the differentiation defect and inhibits proinflammatory gene expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that MyD88 exerts a cell-intrinsic function in RAS-mediated transformation of keratinocytes.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2012; 209(9):1689-1702. DOI:10.1084/jem.20101355 · 13.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IL-36 cytokines are members of the IL-1 family of cytokines that stimulate dendritic cells and T cells leading to enhanced T helper 1 responses in vitro and in vivo; however, their role in host defense has not been fully addressed thus far. The objective of this study was to examine the role of IL-36R signaling in the control of mycobacterial infection, using models of systemic attenuated M. bovis BCG infection and virulent aerogenic M. tuberculosis infection. IL-36γ expression was increased in the lung of M. bovis BCG infected mice. However, IL-36R deficient mice infected with M. bovis BCG showed similar survival and control of the infection as compared to wild-type mice, although their lung pathology and CXCL1 response were transiently different. While highly susceptible TNF-α deficient mice succumbed with overwhelming M. tuberculosis infection, and IL-1RI deficient mice showed intermediate susceptibility, IL-36R-deficient mice controlled the infection, with bacterial burden, lung inflammation and pathology, similar to wild-type controls. Therefore, IL-36R signaling has only limited influence in the control of mycobacterial infection.
    PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0126058. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126058 · 3.53 Impact Factor