No association of vitamin D intake or 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in childhood with risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY)

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, 13001 East 17th Place, Campus Box B119, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
Diabetologia (Impact Factor: 6.67). 08/2011; 54(11):2779-88. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-011-2278-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to investigate the association between vitamin D intake and status and the risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and subsequent type 1 diabetes in children at increased risk of type 1 diabetes.
The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) in Denver, CO, USA, has been following children at increased risk of diabetes since 1993. As of February 2011, 198 children developed IA during follow-up of 2,644 DAISY children. Vitamin D intake and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured longitudinally. Proportional hazards regression analyses of time to IA, or type 1 diabetes in IA-positive children, were conducted, with vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D as time-varying covariates. HRs were calculated for a standard deviation difference in exposure, with adjustment for confounders.
Intake of vitamin D was not associated with the risk of IA (adjusted HR 1.13; 95% CI 0.95, 1.35; p = 0.18) nor progression to diabetes in IA-positive children (adjusted HR 1.30; 95% CI 0.91, 1.86; p = 0.15). Moreover, 25(OH)D level was not associated with the risk of IA (adjusted HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88, 1.43; p = 0.36), nor progression to diabetes in IA-positive children (adjusted HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.68, 1.22; p = 0.54). In the 128 children in whom we measured 25(OH)D at 9 months of age, 25(OH)D was not associated with risk of IA (n = 30 IA-positive children) (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.96, 1.07; p = 0.58).
Neither vitamin D intake nor 25(OH)D levels throughout childhood were associated with the risk of IA or progression to type 1 diabetes in our population.

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Available from: Ronald J Sokol, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "Polymorphisms in both the VDR and the gene that encodes 1α hydroxylase, CYP27B1 are associated with T1D risk [67-69]. Two Northern European cross-sectional studies have shown an inverse relationship between vitamin D supplementation in infancy and T1D incidence [65,70], but the DAISY Study found no relationship between 25 OHD levels and risk of islet autoimmunity or progression to T1D [71]. Population 25 OHD levels have fallen over the last 50 years with urbanisation, avoidance of or less access to sunlight, decreased intake of oily fish and a lower recommended daily intake of vitamin D. In Australia, vitamin D insufficiency is common in pregnancy [72]. "
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    BMC Pediatrics 08/2013; 13(1):124. DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-13-124 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Cod liver oil in infancy has been inversely associated with type 1 diabetes (10), which could reflect a protective effect of one or more of the major constituents of cod liver oil, i.e., vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish, including EPA and DHA. Vitamin D or genetic variations of the vitamin D receptor may protect against inflammation and autoimmunity (28); however, studies focused on type 1 diabetes have yielded mixed results (29,30). Unexpectedly, in our longitudinal analyses, baseline plasma vitamin D was significantly inversely associated with follow-up FCP. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To test the novel hypothesis that nutritional factors previously associated with type 1 diabetes etiology or with insulin secretion are prospectively associated with fasting C-peptide (FCP) concentration among youth recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Included were 1,316 youth with autoantibody-positive type 1 diabetes who participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study (baseline disease duration, 9.9 months; SD, 6.3). Nutritional exposures included breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods, baseline plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin D, vitamin E, and, from a baseline food frequency questionnaire, estimated intake of the branched-chain amino acid leucine and total carbohydrate. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to relate each nutritional factor to baseline FCP adjusted for demographics, disease-related factors, and other confounders. Prospective analyses included the subset of participants with preserved β-cell function at baseline (baseline FCP ≥0.23 ng/mL) with additional adjustment for baseline FCP and time (mean follow-up, 24.3 months; SD, 8.2; n = 656). FCP concentration was analyzed as log(FCP). RESULTS In adjusted prospective analyses, baseline EPA (P = 0.02), EPA plus DHA (P = 0.03), and leucine (P = 0.03) were each associated positively and significantly with FCP at follow-up. Vitamin D was unexpectedly inversely associated with FCP (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Increased intake of branched-chain amino acids and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may support preservation of β-cell function. This represents a new direction for research to improve prognosis for type 1 diabetes.
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    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 11/2011; 61(4):450-8. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2011.09.007 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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