Determinants of early and late mortality among HIV-infected individuals receiving home-based antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda.
ABSTRACT Up to 20% of people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa die during the first year of treatment. Understanding the clinical conditions associated with mortality could potentially lead to effective interventions to prevent these deaths.
We examined data from participants aged ≥18 years in the Home-Based AIDS Care project in Tororo, Uganda, to describe mortality over time and to determine clinical conditions associated with death. Survival analysis was used to examine variables associated with mortality at baseline and during follow-up.
A total of 112 (9.4%) deaths occurred in 1132 subjects (73% women) during a median of 3.0 years of ART. Mortality was 15.9 per 100 person-years during the first 3 months and declined to 0.3 per 100 person-years beyond 24 months after ART initiation. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common condition associated with death (21% of deaths), followed by Candida disease (15%). In 43% of deaths, no specific clinical diagnosis was identified. Deaths within 3 months after ART initiation were associated with World Health Organization clinical stage III or IV at baseline, diagnosis of TB at baseline, a diagnosis of a non-TB opportunistic infection in follow-up and a body mass index ≤17 kg/m² during follow-up. Mortality after 3 months of ART was associated with CD4 cell counts <200 cells per microliter, a diagnosis of TB or other opportunistic infection, adherence to therapy <95%, and low hemoglobin levels during follow-up.
Potentially remediable conditions and preventable infections were associated with mortality while receiving ART in Uganda.
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ABSTRACT: The response to treatment and risk factors for early mortality following initiation of combination antiretrovirals(ARVs) in a cohort of African patients are described in a retrospective cohort design. Medical history, laboratory parameters, and mortality data were reviewed for patients initiating ARVs in 12 clinical centers in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Malawi. Among 3456 HIV-1-infected patients who received ARVs for more than 6 months, at baseline 72% had WHO clinical stages 3/4, 7% had a viral load 400 copies/ml, and 38% had a CD4 cell count >200/microl. One year later, 78% had undetectable virus loads and 79% had CD4 cell counts >200 cells/mm3. In the first year of HAART 260 deaths occurred (97 per 1000 person/years) with mortality peaking in the first 3 months. The highest mortality was observed in patients with low BMI, low hemoglobin levels, and CD4 values <200 cells/microl at baseline. Mortality rates following initiation of HAART are higher in patients in resource-limited areas, particularly in the first 90 days following treatment initiation.HAART initiated at higher CD4 cell count levels, especially among malnourished and/or anemic patients, will carry significant public health impact.AIDS research and human retroviruses 04/2008; 24(4):555-60. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate survival and investigate causes of death among HIV-1 infected adults receiving HAART in Senegal. An observational prospective cohort. Mortality was assessed in the first patients enrolled between August 1998 and April 2002 in the Senegalese antiretroviral drug access initiative. First-line regimen combined two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a protease inhibitor. The most likely causes of death were ascertained through medical records or post-mortem interviews (verbal autopsy). Four hundred and four patients (54.7% women) were enrolled in the study and were followed for a median of 46 months (interquartile range: 32-57 months) after HAART initiation. At baseline, 5% were antiretroviral therapy (ART) non-naive, 39 and 55% were respectively at CDC stage B and C, median age, CD4 cell count and viral load were 37 years, 128 cells/microl and 5.2 log cp/ml, respectively. Ninety-three patients died during follow-up and the overall incidence rate of death was 6.3/100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.2-7.7]. During the first year after HAART initiation, 47 patients died and seven were lost to follow-up, yielding to a probability of dying of 11.7% (95% CI, 8.9-15.3%). The death rate, which was highest during the first year after HAART initiation, decreased with time yielding a cumulative probability of dying of 17.4% (95% CI, 13.9-21.5%) and 24.6% (95% CI, 20.4-29.4%) at 2 and 5 years. Causes of death were ascertained in 76 deaths. Mycobacterial infections, neurotropic infections and septicaemia were the most frequent likely causes of death. This study underlines the early mortality pattern after HAART initiation and highlights the leading role of mycobacterial infections in the causes of death.AIDS 06/2006; 20(8):1181-9. · 6.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We studied mortality and morbidity in 270 HIV-1-infected adults (60% women, median age 31 years, mean baseline CD4 count 331/mm(3) ) observed in a follow-up that lasted a median 10 months in Côte d'Ivoire. Survival and probability of remaining free from any episode of morbidity at 12 months were 0.80 and 0.50, respectively. Baseline CD4 count <200/mm(3) was the only variable associated with global morbidity and mortality, with hazard ratios of 2.50 and 7.57, respectively. The most frequent causes of morbidity were severe bacterial infections (incidence rate: 26.1 per 100 person-years [py]), followed by oral candidiasis (22.3% py), unexplained weight loss over 10% of baseline body weight (13.3% py), tuberculosis (10.1% py), unexplained chronic diarrhea (9.7% py), and isosporiasis (5.1% py). Nontyphoid Salmonella accounted for 37% of isolated strains during severe bacterial infections, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (34%), Escherichia coli (15%), and Shigella species (7%). A significant part of bacterial morbidity occurred in patients with baseline CD4 count > or = 200/mm(3), in whom the incidence rate of bacterial diseases was 21.3% py and the probability of remaining free from any bacterial infection at 12 months was 0.80 (vs. 36.4% py and 0.71 in patients with baseline CD4 count <200/mm(3); p =.07).JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 01/2002; 28(5):478-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor