The identification of a novel protein involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT In the second step of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli, the l-cysteine desulfurase IscS was identified as the primary sulfur donor for the formation of the thiocarboxylate on the small subunit (MoaD) of MPT synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate to molybdopterin (MPT). Although in Moco biosynthesis in humans, the thiocarboxylation of the corresponding MoaD homolog involves two sulfurtransferases, an l-cysteine desulfurase, and a rhodanese-like protein, the rhodanese-like protein in E. coli remained enigmatic so far. Using a reverse approach, we identified a so far unknown sulfurtransferase for the MoeB-MoaD complex by protein-protein interactions. We show that YnjE, a three-domain rhodanese-like protein from E. coli, interacts with MoeB possibly for sulfur transfer to MoaD. The E. coli IscS protein was shown to specifically interact with YnjE for the formation of the persulfide group on YnjE. In a defined in vitro system consisting of MPT synthase, MoeB, Mg-ATP, IscS, and l-cysteine, YnjE was shown to enhance the rate of the conversion of added cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate to MPT. However, YnjE was not an enhancer of the cysteine desulfurase activity of IscS. This is the first report identifying the rhodanese-like protein YnjE as being involved in Moco biosynthesis in E. coli. We believe that the role of YnjE is to make the sulfur transfer from IscS for Moco biosynthesis more specific because IscS is involved in a variety of different sulfur transfer reactions in the cell.
Article: Site-directed mutagenesis of the active site loop of the rhodanese-like domain of the human molybdopterin synthase sulfurase MOCS3. Major differences in substrate specificity between eukaryotic and bacterial homologs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sequence alignments of human molybdopterin synthase sulfurase, MOCS3, showed that the N-terminal domain is homologous to Escherichia coli MoeB, whereas the C-terminal domain is homologous to rhodanese-like proteins. Previous studies showed that the activity of the separately purified rhodanese-like domain of MOCS3 displayed 1000-fold lower activity in comparison to bovine rhodanese with thiosulfate as sulfur source. When the six amino acid active site loop of MOCS3 rhodanese-like domain was exchanged with the loop found in bovine rhodanese, thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase activity was increased 165-fold. Site-directed mutagenesis of each individual residue of the active site loop of the MOCS3 rhodanese-like domain showed that the charge of the last amino acid determines thiosulfate sulfurtransferase activity. Replacing Asp417 by threonine resulted in 90-fold increased activity, whereas replacing it by arginine increased the activity 470-fold. Using a fully defined in vitro system containing precursor Z, MOCS2A, E. coli MoaE, E. coli MoeB, Mg-ATP, MOCS3 rhodanese-like domain, and thiosulfate, it was shown that sulfur transfer to MOCS2A was also affected by the alterations, but not as drastically. Our studies revealed that in humans and most eukaryotes thiosulfate is not the physiologic sulfur donor for MOCS3, whereas in bacterial homologs, which have an arginine at the last position of the active site loop, thiosulfate can be used as a sulfur source for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. The phylogenetic analysis of MoeB homologs showed that eukaryotic homologs are of bacterial origin. Furthermore, it could be shown that an MoeB homolog named MoeZ, where the dual CXXC zinc-binding motif of the MoeB domain is not present, arose independently several times during evolution.FEBS Journal 07/2007; 274(11):2778-87. · 3.79 Impact Factor