Safety assessment of mushroom β-glucan: Subchronic toxicity in rodents and mutagenicity studies
ABSTRACT Mushroom β-glucan, a polymer of β-(1,3/1,6)-glucan, has been claimed for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the safety in-use of mushroom β-glucan as dietary supplement and food ingredient. Hence, a subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies were conducted. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were administered (gavage) mushroom β-glucan at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days. As compared to control group, administration of β-glucan did not result in any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, and organ weights. No adverse effects of the β-glucan on the hematology, serum chemistry parameters, urinalysis or terminal necropsy (gross or histopathology findings) were noted. The results of mutagenicity studies as evaluated by gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium, in vitro chromosome aberrations and in vivo micronucleus test in mouse did not reveal any genotoxicity of β-glucan. Based on the subchronic study, the no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for mushroom β-glucan was determined as 2000 mg/kgbw/day, the highest dose tested.
- SourceAvailable from: Wim GrunewaldFood and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2012; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2012.10.051 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increasing use of traditional herbal medicines around the world requires more scientific evidence for their putative harmlessness. To this end, a plethora of methods exist, more or less satisfying. In this post-genome era, recent reviews are however scarce, not only on the use of new "omics" methods (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabonomics) for genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and nephrotoxicity assessment, but also on conventional ones. The present work aims (i) to review conventional methods used to assess genotoxicity, teratogenicity and nephrotoxicity of medicinal plants and mushrooms; (ii) to report recent progress in the use of "omics" technologies in this field; (iii) to underline advantages and limitations of promising methods; and lastly (iv) to suggest ways whereby the genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and nephrotoxicity assessment of traditional herbal medicines could be more predictive. Literature and safety reports show that structural alerts, in silico and classical in vitro and in vivo predictive methods are often used. The current trend to develop "omics" technologies to assess genotoxicity, teratogenicity and nephrotoxicity is promising but most often relies on methods that are still not standardized and validated. Hence, it is critical that toxicologists in industry, regulatory agencies and academic institutions develop a consensus, based on rigorous methods, about the reliability and interpretation of endpoints. It will also be important to regulate the integration of conventional methods for toxicity assessments with new "omics" technologies.Journal of ethnopharmacology 02/2012; 140(3):492-512. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.059 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article presents an overview of the recent advances into the health promoting potentials of oat β‐glucan. Oat β‐glucan (OβG) consists mainly of the linear polysaccharide (1→3), (1→4)‐β‐D‐glucan and is often called β‐glucan. This soluble oat fiber is able to attenuate blood postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses, to lower blood total cholesterol and low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and to improve high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and blood lipid profiles as well as to maintain body weight. Thus, OβG intake is beneficial in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, OβG can stimulate immune functions by activating monocytes/macrophages and increasing the amounts of immunoglobulin, NK cells, killer T‐cells, and so on, which will improve resistance to cancer and infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as increase biological therapies and their prevention. All these health benefits of OβG may be explained by its physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, molecular weight) which can be affected by extraction methods and its behavior in gastrointestinal tract. Articles documenting these health benefits and effects are reviewed.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 07/2012; 11(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00189.x · 3.54 Impact Factor