Safety assessment of mushroom β-glucan: Subchronic toxicity in rodents and mutagenicity studies
ABSTRACT Mushroom β-glucan, a polymer of β-(1,3/1,6)-glucan, has been claimed for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the safety in-use of mushroom β-glucan as dietary supplement and food ingredient. Hence, a subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies were conducted. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were administered (gavage) mushroom β-glucan at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days. As compared to control group, administration of β-glucan did not result in any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, and organ weights. No adverse effects of the β-glucan on the hematology, serum chemistry parameters, urinalysis or terminal necropsy (gross or histopathology findings) were noted. The results of mutagenicity studies as evaluated by gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium, in vitro chromosome aberrations and in vivo micronucleus test in mouse did not reveal any genotoxicity of β-glucan. Based on the subchronic study, the no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for mushroom β-glucan was determined as 2000 mg/kgbw/day, the highest dose tested.
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- "Our previous study has examined the safety assessment of mushroom beta-glucan ; moreover, in this experiment, mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata subcultured and maintained in sterile YM agar (0.02%) was used for the production of MBG. The manufacturing process was initiated by preparing a culture medium containing glucose, lactose, galactose, sucrose, mannose, and yeast extract. "
ABSTRACT: The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.01/2015; 2015:604385. DOI:10.1155/2015/604385
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2012; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2012.10.051 · 2.61 Impact Factor
- "This laboratory strain has been repeatedly used to test the safety of chemical substances in 90-day feeding studies (e.g. Bondy et al., 2004; Chen et al., 2011). The same rats have also been used in numerous food safety studies using various genetically modified crops over a period of 90 days (e.g. "
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ABSTRACT: The increasing use of traditional herbal medicines around the world requires more scientific evidence for their putative harmlessness. To this end, a plethora of methods exist, more or less satisfying. In this post-genome era, recent reviews are however scarce, not only on the use of new "omics" methods (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabonomics) for genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and nephrotoxicity assessment, but also on conventional ones. The present work aims (i) to review conventional methods used to assess genotoxicity, teratogenicity and nephrotoxicity of medicinal plants and mushrooms; (ii) to report recent progress in the use of "omics" technologies in this field; (iii) to underline advantages and limitations of promising methods; and lastly (iv) to suggest ways whereby the genotoxicity, teratogenicity, and nephrotoxicity assessment of traditional herbal medicines could be more predictive. Literature and safety reports show that structural alerts, in silico and classical in vitro and in vivo predictive methods are often used. The current trend to develop "omics" technologies to assess genotoxicity, teratogenicity and nephrotoxicity is promising but most often relies on methods that are still not standardized and validated. Hence, it is critical that toxicologists in industry, regulatory agencies and academic institutions develop a consensus, based on rigorous methods, about the reliability and interpretation of endpoints. It will also be important to regulate the integration of conventional methods for toxicity assessments with new "omics" technologies.Journal of ethnopharmacology 02/2012; 140(3):492-512. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.059 · 2.94 Impact Factor