Mushroom β-glucan, a polymer of β-(1,3/1,6)-glucan, has been claimed for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the safety in-use of mushroom β-glucan as dietary supplement and food ingredient. Hence, a subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies were conducted. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were administered (gavage) mushroom β-glucan at dose levels of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90 days. As compared to control group, administration of β-glucan did not result in any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights, body weight gains, feed consumption, and organ weights. No adverse effects of the β-glucan on the hematology, serum chemistry parameters, urinalysis or terminal necropsy (gross or histopathology findings) were noted. The results of mutagenicity studies as evaluated by gene mutations in Salmonella typhimurium, in vitro chromosome aberrations and in vivo micronucleus test in mouse did not reveal any genotoxicity of β-glucan. Based on the subchronic study, the no observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for mushroom β-glucan was determined as 2000 mg/kgbw/day, the highest dose tested.
"Our previous study has examined the safety assessment of mushroom beta-glucan ; moreover, in this experiment, mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata subcultured and maintained in sterile YM agar (0.02%) was used for the production of MBG. The manufacturing process was initiated by preparing a culture medium containing glucose, lactose, galactose, sucrose, mannose, and yeast extract. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-β production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-γ mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-β mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides.
"In the present study, the potential adjunct therapeutic effects of MBGS treatment in a murine tumor-bearing model have been observed. The antimetastatic effect, as demonstrated in the present study, might be a result of an increase in NK-cell mediated cytotoxicity, as previously suggested by Di Luzio and Williams ; Ŝandula et al. ; and Chen et al., 2011 . The NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity increases significantly after four days of MBGS treatment in mice. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the effect of mushroom beta-glucans (MBGS) derived from solid culture of Ganoderma lucidum on tumor inhibition by examining size of the primary tumor and rate of metastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) bearing mice (C57BL/6), given oral administration of MBGS with radiation therapy. A previous result showed that MBGS enhances NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in mice without LLC bearing in advance. Furthermore, applications of MBGS in conjunction with radiation therapy were effective in controlling tumor growth, and rate of metastasis, life threatening, and can potentially serve as a protective factor for wounds and hair loss that resulted from the overgrowth of primary tumor in LLC bearing mice.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 04/2014; 2014:252171. DOI:10.1155/2014/252171 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"However, Ganoderma extract is granted safe on short-term exposure. Conversely, in vivo toxicity profiling of total triterpene fraction from G. lucidum against Swiss albino mice showed that ganoderma triterpenes did not possess significant toxicity
 and administration of G. lucidum β–glucan (2000 mg/kg body weight/day) to Sprague Dawley rats did not cause toxicological abnormality
. Mutagenicity studies by means of Salmonella typhimurium also did not reveal any genotoxicity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mushrooms are not only regarded as gourmet cuisine but also as therapeutic agent to promote cognition health. However, little toxicological information is available regarding their safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen selected ethno-pharmacologically important mushrooms for stimulatory effects on neurite outgrowth and to test for any cytotoxicity.
The stimulatory effect of mushrooms on neurite outgrowth was assessed in differentiating mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Neurite length was measured using Image-Pro Insight processor system. Neuritogenesis activity was further validated by fluorescence immunocytochemical staining of neurofilaments. In vitro cytotoxicity was investigated by using mouse embryonic fibroblast (BALB/3T3) and N2a cells for any embryo- and neuro-toxic effects; respectively.
Aqueous extracts of Ganoderma lucidum, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Pleurotus giganteus and Grifola frondosa; as well as an ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the neurite outgrowth in N2a cells by 38.4 +/- 4.2%, 38.1 +/- 2.6%, 33.4 +/- 4.6%, 33.7 +/- 1.5%, and 35.8 +/- 3.4%; respectively. The IC50 values obtained from tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays showed no toxic effects following 24 h exposure of N2a and 3T3 cells to mushroom extracts.
Our results indicate that G. lucidum, L. rhinocerotis, P. giganteus, G. frondosa and C. militaris may be developed as safe and healthy dietary supplements for brain and cognitive health.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2013; 13(1):261. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-261 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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