The effects of the major schizophrenia susceptibility gene disease DTNBP1 on disease risk are likely to be mediated through changes in expression level of the gene product, dysbindin-1. How such changes might influence pathogenesis is, however, unclear. One possible mechanism is suggested by recent work establishing a link between altered dysbindin-1 expression and changes in surface levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), although neither the precise nature of this relationship, nor the mechanism underlying it, are understood. Using organotypic slices of rat hippocampus, we show that increased expression of dysbindin-1A in pyramidal neurons causes a severe and selective hypofunction of NMDARs and blocks induction of LTP. Cell surface, but not cytoplasmic, expression of the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR is decreased, suggesting dysregulation of NMDAR trafficking and, consistent with this, pharmacological inhibition of clathrin-dependent endocytosis is sufficient to reverse the deficit in NMDAR signaling. These results support the idea that the level of the NMDAR at the plasma membrane is modulated by changes in dysbindin-1 expression and offer further insight into the role of dysbindin-1 at an important cellular pathway implicated in schizophrenia.
"Author's personal copy role of dysbindin-1 in modulating both DAergic and glutamatergic signaling systems, for the purpose of this chapter we will specifically focus on the implication of dysbindin-1 for the DAergic system. The discussion of the effects of dysbindin-1 on the glutamatergic system can be found elsewhere (Dickman and Davis, 2009; Ghiani and Dell'Angelica, 2011; Jeans et al., 2011; Karlsgodt et al., 2011; Papaleo and Weinberger, 2011; Saggu et al., 2013; Tang et al., 2009b; Wirth et al., 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutant mice play an increasingly important role in understanding disease processes at multiple levels. In particular, they illuminate the impact of risk genes for disease on such processes. This article reviews recent advances in the application of mutant mice to study the intricacies of dopaminergic (DAergic) function in relation to the putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness, particularly schizophrenia, and antipsychotic drug action. It considers models for understanding the role(s) of risk genes, with a particular focus on DTNBP1 and NRG1, their interactions with environmental factors, and with each other (epistasis). In overview, it considers new schemas for understanding psychotic illness that integrate DAergic pathophysiology with developmental, social, and cognitive processes, and how mutant mouse models can reflect and inform on such schemas.
Progress in brain research 06/2014; 211:79-112. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-444-63425-2.00004-0 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the best-characterized mechanism governing cellular membrane and protein trafficking. In this hypothesis review, we integrate recent evidence implicating CME and related cellular trafficking mechanisms in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The evidence includes proteomic and genomic findings implicating proteins and genes of the clathrin interactome. Additionally, several important candidate genes for schizophrenia, such as dysbindin, are involved in processes closely linked to CME and membrane trafficking. We discuss that key aspects of psychosis neuropathology such as synaptic dysfunction, white matter changes and aberrant neurodevelopment are all influenced by clathrin-dependent processes, and that other cellular trafficking mechanisms previously linked to psychoses interact with the clathrin interactome in important ways. Furthermore, many antipsychotic drugs have been shown to affect clathrin-interacting proteins. We propose that the targeted pharmacological manipulation of the clathrin interactome may offer fruitful opportunities for novel treatments of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administration of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) to rodents is widely used as preclinical model for schizophrenia. Most studies on this model employ methods investigating behavior and brain abnormalities. However, little is known about the corresponding peripheral effects. In this study, we analyzed changes in brain and serum molecular profiles, together with alterations in behavior after acute PCP treatment of rats. Furthermore, abnormalities in peripheral protein expression of first and recent onset antipsychotic free schizophrenia patients were assessed for comparison with the preclinical model. PCP treatment induced hyperlocomotion and stereotypic behavior, which have been related to positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Multiplex immunoassay profiling of serum revealed molecular abnormalities similar to those seen in first and recent onset, antipsychotic free schizophrenia patients. Also, increased insulin levels were detected after administration of a glucose tolerance test (GTT), consistent with previous studies showing changes in insulin signaling in patients with schizophrenia. Finally, schizophrenia-relevant alterations in brain molecules were found in the hippocampus and to a lesser extent in the frontal cortex using liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In conclusion, this study identified behavioral and molecular alterations in the acute PCP rat model, which are also observed in human schizophrenia. We propose that the corresponding changes in serum in both animals and patients may have utility as surrogate markers in this model to facilitate discovery and development of novel drugs for treatment of certain pathological features of schizophrenia.
Journal of Proteome Research 05/2012; 11(7):3704-14. DOI:10.1021/pr300197d · 4.25 Impact Factor
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