Polymorphism of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene as a susceptibility risk factor for antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Tunisian patients with tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT Antituberculosis drug-induced hepatitis attributed to isoniazide (INH) is one of the most prevalent drug-induced liver injuries. INH is metabolized by hepatic N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) to form hepatotoxins.
To evaluate whether polymorphism of the NAT2 gene was associated with antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity in Tunisian patients.
A total of 66 patients with tuberculosis (TB) who received anti-TB treatment were followed prospectively. Their NAT2 genotype was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). We identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 481C to T (NAT2*5B), 590G to A (NAT2*6A) and 857G to A (NAT2*7B). Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the risk factors of isoniazid-induced hepatitis.
Fourteen patients (21.2%) were diagnosed with anti-TB drug-induced hepatitis. None of the rapid acetylators-type patients have expressed serum aminotransferase elevation. Among patients with hepatotoxicity, slow acetylators-type patients had a higher risk of hepatotoxicity than intermediate acetylators (21.4% vs. 78.6%, P=0.01). Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of a variant diplotypes, NAT2*5B/5B and NAT2*6A/6A, were significantly increased in TB patients with hepatotoxicity, compared with those without hepatotoxicity (P=0.01, odds ratio [OR]=7.6 and P=0.029, OR=15, respectively). By contrast, the frequency of the rapid acetylation NAT2*4 allele was significantly lower in TB patients with hepatotoxicity than those without hepatotoxicity (P=0.02, OR=0.18). Moreover, 590G/G genotype was associated with decreased hepatotoxicity (P=0.01); by contrast, homozygous point mutation at position 481 and 590 were associated with a higher risk of hepatotoxicity (P=0.01).
Our results suggest that the slow-acetylator status of NAT2 is risk factor for INH-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, diplotypes, NAT2*5B/5B, NAT2*6A/6A, 481T/T and 590A/A, are useful new biomarkers for predicting anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic risk factors for idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in the past 30 years. These reactions can affect various tissues and organs, including liver, skin, muscle and heart, in a drug-dependent manner. Using both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, various genes that make contributions of varying extents to each of these forms of reactions have been identified. Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. Future prospects for identification of additional genetic risk factors for the various adverse drug reactions are discussed.Genome Medicine 01/2013; 5(1):5. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship of NAT2, CYP2E1 and GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms with mild elevation of liver biomarkers was investigated in individuals under anti-tuberculosis drug therapy. Tuberculosis outpatients (18-70 y) with (n=59) and without (n=40) mild increase of liver enzymes (MILE) at two-month treatment were selected. Blood samples were obtained for DNA extraction and evaluation of serum markers of liver function. NAT2, CYP2E1 and GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms were detected by DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and PCR multiplex. Frequency of NAT2*5/*5 genotype was higher in MILE than in non-MILE group (p=0.04). Patients carrying NAT2*5/*5 genotype had increased susceptibility to MILE (OR: 9.00, 95CI: 1.46-55.48, p=0.018). CYP2E1*5B allele (*1A/*5B plus *5B/*5B genotypes) carriers had a trend for reduced risk for MILE (OR: 0.34, 95CI: 0.11-1.03, p=0.056) that was confirmed by lower levels of liver markers than CYP2E1*1A/*1A carriers after treatment (p<0.05). Moreover, increased post-treatment ALT, AST and total bilirubin was associated with GSTM1*1/GSTT1*1 genotypes (p<0.05). Patients taking CYP2E1 inhibitors had increased susceptibility to MILE (OR: 7.39, 95CI: 1.93-28.29, p=0.003), which was independent of the studied polymorphisms. These results are suggestive that NAT2, CYP2E1 and GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms and concomitant use of CYP2E1 inhibitors contribute to the susceptibility to mild alterations in liver enzymes in patients under anti-tuberculosis drug therapy.Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 10/2012; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis and genetic factors influencing predisposition to antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) are not clear. Polymorphism at the genetic locus of a drug and xenobiotic compound metabolizing enzyme, N-acetyltransferase type 2 (NAT2), is reported to be associated with the excess generation of toxic reactive metabolites. To date, many case-control studies have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the NAT2 polymorphisms and ATDH, but the results have been inconsistent. To investigate this inconsistency, a meta-analysis was performed. Databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and CNKI were searched to find relevant studies. A total of 26 case-control studies, involving 1,198 cases and 2,921 controls were included. Overall, we found significant association between slow acetylator genotype of NAT2 and ATDH (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI: 2.47-3.88, P < 10(-5)). Significant results were also found in East Asians, South Asians, Brazilians and Middle Eastern when stratified by ethnicity. However, no significant associations were found for Caucasians. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the slow acetylator genotype of NAT2 is a risk factor associated with increased ATDH susceptibility, but these associations vary in different ethnic populations.Molecular Biology Reports 01/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor