Central Role of Boari Bladder Flap and Downward Nephropexy in Upper Ureteral Reconstruction
ABSTRACT We defined the role of the Boari bladder flap procedure with or without downward nephropexy for proximal vs distal ureteral strictures.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who underwent open ureteral reconstruction for refractory ureteral strictures, as done by a single surgeon between 2007 and 2010. Patients were grouped by stricture site into group 1--proximal third of the ureter and group 2--distal two-thirds. Operative techniques and outcomes were reviewed.
During the 30-month study period a total of 29 ureteral reconstruction procedures were performed on 27 patients. A Boari bladder flap was used in 10 of the 12 patients (83%) in group 1 and 10 of the 17 (59%) in group 2. Concomitant downward nephropexy was done more commonly in group 1 (58% vs 12%, p = 0.014). At a mean followup of 11.4 months there was no difference in the overall failure rate between groups 1 and 2 (17% vs 12%). Complications developed more frequently in group 1 (75% vs 35%, p = 0.060), hospital stay was longer (mean 8.0 vs 4.4 days, p = 0.017) and mean estimated blood loss was greater (447 vs 224 ml, p = 0.008).
The Boari bladder flap procedure is a reliable technique to reconstruct ureteral strictures regardless of site. Renal mobilization with downward nephropexy is a useful adjunctive maneuver for proximal strictures.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe our initial experience with robot-assisted ureteroureterostomy (RUU) at the proximal, middle, and distal ureter. Materials and methods: Twelve consecutive patients underwent RUU by a single surgeon (DDE) between July 2009 and November 2012. Indications included three iatrogenic injuries, two impacted stones, two ureterovaginal fistulas, two idiopathic ureteral strictures refractory to conservative treatment, one primary transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter, one colon cancer metastasis to the ureter, and one invasive endometriosis. There were two proximal, three middle, and seven distal ureteral pathologies. Results: Tension-free anastomosis was achieved in all 12 patients. All patients with proximal and middle ureteral pathology received concomitant downward nephropexy (DN) as a standard part of RUU. Mean age of patients at time of surgery was 52 years (range 30-69), mean body mass index was 30.0 kilograms/meter2 (range 21-38), mean operative room time was 190 minutes (range 104-354), mean estimated blood loss was 181 milliliters (range 50-400), and mean length of excised ureter on pathologic analysis was 2.0 centimeters (range 1.0-4.5). There was one intraoperative complication in which liver and gallbladder laceration occurred during trocar placement. Mean length of hospital stay was 1.4 days (range 1-5), and there were no postoperative complications. Mean follow up was 10 months (range 3-36). One patient had a ureteral stricture recurrence at 7 months postoperatively that led to renal unit loss and eventual nephrectomy. Conclusion: RUU is feasible, safe, and demonstrates good outcomes for pathologies at the proximal, middle, and distal ureter. Concomitant DN during RUU may assist in achieving a tension-free anastomosis for proximal and middle ureteral repairs.Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 04/2013; 27(8). DOI:10.1089/end.2013.0075 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess functional outcomes and complications of ureteroneocystotomies (UNCs) with or without psoas hitch or Boari flap in the reconstruction and repair of the ureter. METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of patients that underwent open ureteral reconstruction for ureteral obstruction or injury. Underlying ureteral disorder, preoperative and postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and imaging studies regarding resolution of hydronephrosis were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 100 ureteral reimplantations performed at our institution from November 1986 to August 2012 were identified: 24 primary ureteroneocystotomies, 58 with psoas hitch, and 18 with Boari flap. Median follow-up was 48.7 months (range 12.3-253 months). The most common underlying disorder was ureteral transitional cell cancer (TCC). Men were found to have more frequent underlying chronic ureteral disorders with chronic renal failure when compared to women. Ureteral stents were placed in 81% and were removed after a median of 33 days (range 2-161 days). Resolution of hydronephrosis was noted in 81% of the patients. The eGFR deteriorated significantly over time only in male patients (P = .001). Postoperative complications included stent-related dysuria, urinary tract infection, and contrast-extravasation on cystogram necessitating prolonged urethral and ureteral catheter drainage. CONCLUSION: Excellent functional outcome without significant morbidity associated with ureteral reimplantation/reconstruction was achieved. Despite resolution of hydronephrosis in the vast majority of patients, those with chronic underlying ureteral disorder and renal failure did not show improvement of their eGFR.Urology 05/2013; 82(1). DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2013.02.046 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the treatment alternatives of total avulsion of the ureter from both ends including ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and ureterovesical junction (UVJ). Total ureteral avulsion on both ends of the ureter was examined in 4 cases performing ureteroscopy. In two male patients of the four cases, avulsion was noticed intraoperatively and ureteral re-anastomosis at UPJ and re-implantation at UVJ were performed immediately. Boari flap was performed for one female patient immediately and for the other female patient who was referred from another hospital after the ureteroscopy, 4 days later. One patient who had ureteral re-implantation was followed with 3-month intervals by ultrasonography and abdominal X-ray. At the end of 1 year, it was determined that kidney parenchyma was normal and the patient had kidney and upper ureteral stones. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed, and the patient was stone-free at the end of the operation. Two years after the surgery, both kidneys were normal. This is the only case who had a successful ureteral re-implantation in literature. The other patient turned up a year later for routine checks after the ureteral stent was removed. Then, hydronephrosis and renal atrophy were detected. The patient did not accept nephrectomy or any other intervention and he was lost to follow-up. Boari flap procedure was performed after UPJ repair for the other two female patients. Their kidneys were both normal 3 months after the operation. In case of ureteral avulsion from both ends of the ureter in the male patients, as bladder capacity is not enough for a Boari flap, proximal anastomosis and distal re-implantation could be a good choice for the management of this untoward event. This new approach also saves time for reconstructive treatments if necessary. If bladder capacity is enough to reach UPJ, Boari flap could be a good choice in female patients.International Urology and Nephrology 07/2013; 45(6). DOI:10.1007/s11255-013-0505-0 · 1.29 Impact Factor