The antiplatelet activity of camel urine.
ABSTRACT For centuries, camel urine has been used for medicinal purposes and anecdotally proclaimed as a cure for a wide range of diseases. However, the apparent therapeutic actions of camel urine have yet to be subjected to rigorous scientific scrutiny. Recent preliminary studies from the authors' laboratory have indicated that camel urine possesses potent antiplatelet activity, not found in human or bovine urines, suggesting a possible role for camel urine in inhibiting platelet function. The goal of the current study was to characterize the antiplatelet activity of camel urine against normal human platelets based on agonist-induced aggregation and platelet function analyzer (PFA-100) closure time.
Urine was collected from healthy virgin, pregnant, and lactating camels aged 2-10 years. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared from blood collected from healthy individuals' blood into citrated anticoagulant. Agonist-induced aggregometry using donor PRP and PFA-100 closure times in whole blood were carried out in the presence and absence of added camel urine. The responses of platelets to multiple doses of camel urine were also assessed. The experimental procedure was repeated in human and bovine urines.
Camel urine completely inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and adnosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation of human platelets in a dose-dependent manner. PFA-100 closure time using human whole blood was prolonged following the addition of camel urine in a dose-dependent manner. Virgin camel urine was less effective in inhibiting ADP-induced aggregation as compared to urine from lactating and pregnant camels; however, all three showed comparable inhibitory activity. Neither human nor bovine urine exhibited antiplatelet activity.
Camel urine has potent antiplatelet activity against ADP-induced (clopidogrel-like) and AA-induced (aspirin-like) platelet aggregation; neither human nor bovine urine exhibited such properties. These novel results provide the first scientific evidence of the mechanism of the presumed therapeutic properties of camel urine.
- SourceAvailable from: Ameera Gaafar[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While camel urine (CU) is widely used in the Arabian Peninsula to treat various diseases, including cancer, its exact mechanism of action is still not defined. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether camel urine has anti-cancer effect on human cells in vitro. The annexinV/PI assay was used to assess apoptosis, and immunoblotting analysis determined the effect of CU on different apoptotic and oncogenic proteins. Furthermore, flow cytometry and Elispot were utilized to investigate cytotoxicity and the effect on the cell cycle as well as the production of cytokines, respectively. Camel urine showed cytotoxicity against various, but not all, human cancer cell lines, with only marginal effect on non-tumorigenic epithelial and normal fibroblast cells epithelial and fibroblast cells. Interestingly, 216mg/ml of lyophilized CU inhibited cell proliferation and triggered more than 80% of apoptosis in different cancer cells, including breast carcinomas and medulloblastomas. Apoptosis was induced in these cells through the intrinsic pathway via Bcl-2 decrease. Furthermore, CU down-regulated the cancer-promoting proteins survivin, β-catenin and cyclin D1 and increased the level of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. In addition, we have shown that CU has no cytotoxic effect against peripheral blood mononuclear cells and has strong immuno-inducer activity through inducing IFN-γ and inhibiting the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10. CU has specific and efficient anti-cancer and potent immune-modulator properties in vitro.Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2012; 143(3):819-25. · 2.32 Impact Factor