The Antiplatelet Activity of Camel Urine
ABSTRACT For centuries, camel urine has been used for medicinal purposes and anecdotally proclaimed as a cure for a wide range of diseases. However, the apparent therapeutic actions of camel urine have yet to be subjected to rigorous scientific scrutiny. Recent preliminary studies from the authors' laboratory have indicated that camel urine possesses potent antiplatelet activity, not found in human or bovine urines, suggesting a possible role for camel urine in inhibiting platelet function. The goal of the current study was to characterize the antiplatelet activity of camel urine against normal human platelets based on agonist-induced aggregation and platelet function analyzer (PFA-100) closure time.
Urine was collected from healthy virgin, pregnant, and lactating camels aged 2-10 years. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared from blood collected from healthy individuals' blood into citrated anticoagulant. Agonist-induced aggregometry using donor PRP and PFA-100 closure times in whole blood were carried out in the presence and absence of added camel urine. The responses of platelets to multiple doses of camel urine were also assessed. The experimental procedure was repeated in human and bovine urines.
Camel urine completely inhibited arachidonic acid (AA) and adnosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation of human platelets in a dose-dependent manner. PFA-100 closure time using human whole blood was prolonged following the addition of camel urine in a dose-dependent manner. Virgin camel urine was less effective in inhibiting ADP-induced aggregation as compared to urine from lactating and pregnant camels; however, all three showed comparable inhibitory activity. Neither human nor bovine urine exhibited antiplatelet activity.
Camel urine has potent antiplatelet activity against ADP-induced (clopidogrel-like) and AA-induced (aspirin-like) platelet aggregation; neither human nor bovine urine exhibited such properties. These novel results provide the first scientific evidence of the mechanism of the presumed therapeutic properties of camel urine.
SourceAvailable from: Ajamaluddin Malik[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
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