Reslizumab for Poorly Controlled, Eosinophilic Asthma: A

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 13). 08/2011; 184(10):1125-32. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201103-0396OC
Source: PubMed


Eosinophilic asthma is a phenotype of asthma characterized by the persistence of eosinophils in the airways. IL-5 is involved in the activation and survival of eosinophils.
To evaluate the effect of the antibody to IL-5, reslizumab, in patients with eosinophilic asthma that is poorly controlled with high-dose inhaled corticosteroid.
Patients were randomly assigned to receive infusions of reslizumab at 3.0 mg/kg (n = 53) or placebo (n = 53) at baseline and at Weeks 4, 8, and 12, with stratification by baseline Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score less than or equal to 2 or greater than 2. The primary efficacy measure was the difference between the reslizumab and placebo groups in the change in ACQ score from baseline to end of therapy (Week 15 or early withdrawal).
Mean changes from baseline to end of therapy in ACQ score were -0.7 in the reslizumab group and -0.3 in the placebo group (P = 0.054) and in FEV(1) were 0.18 and -0.08 L, respectively (P = 0.002). In those patients with nasal polyps, the changes in ACQ score were -1.0 and -0.1, respectively (P = 0.012). Median percentage reductions from baseline in sputum eosinophils were 95.4 and 38.7%, respectively (P = 0.007). Eight percent of patients in the reslizumab group and 19% of patients in the placebo group had an asthma exacerbation (P = 0.083). The most common adverse events with reslizumab were nasopharyngitis, fatigue, and pharyngolaryngeal pain.
Patients receiving reslizumab showed significantly greater reductions in sputum eosinophils, improvements in airway function, and a trend toward greater asthma control than those receiving placebo. Reslizumab was generally well tolerated.

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Available from: Mario Castro, May 08, 2014
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    • "mepolizumab and reslizumab) and IL-5Rα (e.g. benralizumab) have been shown clinically to reduce circulating eosinophil numbers and/or to suppress eosinophil maturation in the bone marrow [17]–[19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate complex transcriptional networks underpin immune responses. However, little is known about the specific miRNA networks that control differentiation of specific leukocyte subsets. In this study, we profiled miRNA expression during differentiation of eosinophils from bone marrow (BM) progenitors (bmEos), and correlated expression with potential mRNA targets involved in crucial regulatory functions. Profiling was performed on whole BM cultures to document the dynamic changes in miRNA expression in the BM microenvironment over the differentiation period. miRNA for network analysis were identified in BM cultures enriched in differentiating eosinophils, and chosen for their potential ability to target mRNA of factors that are known to play critical roles in eosinophil differentiation pathways or cell identify. We identified 68 miRNAs with expression patterns that were up- or down- regulated 5-fold or more during bmEos differentiation. By employing TargetScan and MeSH databases, we identified 348 transcripts involved in 30 canonical pathways as potentially regulated by these miRNAs. Furthermore, by applying miRanda and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA), we identified 13 specific miRNAs that are temporally associated with the expression of IL-5Rα and CCR3 and 14 miRNAs associated with the transcription factors GATA-1/2, PU.1 and C/EBPε. We have also identified 17 miRNAs that may regulate the expression of TLRs 4 and 13 during eosinophil differentiation, although we could identify no miRNAs targeting the prominent secretory effector, eosinophil major basic protein. This is the first study to map changes in miRNA expression in whole BM cultures during the differentiation of eosinophils, and to predict functional links between miRNAs and their target mRNAs for the regulation of eosinophilopoiesis. Our findings provide an important resource that will promote the platform for further understanding of the role of these non-coding RNAs in the regulation of eosinophil differentiation and function.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97537. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097537 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Reslizumab, an IgG4 humanized monoclonal antibody against IL-5, has also been given to patients with poorly controlled eosinophilic asthma.94 A recent study showed a significant reduction in sputum eosinophils and improvement in lung function when compared with placebo after 15 weeks of treatment with reslizumab 3 mg/kg given at monthly intervals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic inflammation in asthma although several noninvasive biomarkers, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide and periostin, are emerging as potential surrogates. As novel therapies and biologic agents become increasingly available, there is an increased need for specific phenotype-directed treatment strategies. Greater recognition and understanding of the unique immunopathology of this asthma phenotype has important implications for management of the disease and the potential to improve patient outcomes. The present review provides a summary of the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic asthma.
    Journal of Asthma and Allergy 04/2014; 7(7):53-65. DOI:10.2147/JAA.S39119
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    • "Eosinophils (EOS) are a hallmark of allergic asthma. Although the role of airway EOS has been controversial, recent trials with anti-EOS therapies such as mepolizumab and reslizumab (both anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibodies) demonstrated reduction in asthma exacerbations [10] [11] [12] [13]. EOS are capable of releasing cytokines that direct the T lymphocyte response [14] [15], and enhance airway remodeling [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Semaphorin 7A (sema7a) plays a major role in TGF-β1-induced lung fibrosis. Based on the accumulating evidence that eosinophils contribute to fibrosis/remodeling in the airway, we hypothesized that airway eosinophils may be a significant source of sema7a. In vivo, sema7a was expressed on the surface of circulating eosinophils and upregulated on bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils obtained after segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen. Based on mRNA levels in unfractionated and isolated bronchoalveolar cells, eosinophils are the predominant source of sema7a. In vitro, among the members of the IL-5-family cytokines, sema7a protein on the surface of blood eosinophils was increased more by IL-3 than by GM-CSF or IL-5. Cytokine-induced expression of cell surface sema7a required translation of newly synthesized protein. Finally, a recombinant sema7a induced alpha-smooth muscle actin production in human bronchial fibroblasts. semaphorin 7A is a potentially important modulator of eosinophil profibrotic functions in the airway remodeling of patients with chronic asthma.
    Clinical Immunology 11/2013; 150(1):90-100. DOI:10.1016/j.clim.2013.11.009 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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