Raptor and Rheb negatively regulate skeletal myogenesis through suppression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1).
ABSTRACT The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for skeletal myogenesis through controlling distinct cellular pathways. The importance of the canonical mTOR complex 1 signaling components, including raptor, S6K1, and Rheb, had been suggested in muscle maintenance, growth, and metabolism. However, the role of those components in myogenic differentiation is not entirely clear. In this study we have investigated the functions of raptor, S6K1, and Rheb in the differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts. We find that although mTOR knockdown severely impairs myogenic differentiation as expected, the knockdown of raptor, as well as Rheb, enhances differentiation. Consistent with a negative role for these proteins in myogenesis, overexpression of raptor or Rheb inhibits C2C12 differentiation. On the other hand, neither knockdown nor overexpression of S6K1 has any effect. Moreover, the enhanced differentiation elicited by raptor or Rheb knockdown is accompanied by increased Akt activation, elevated IRS1 protein levels, and decreased Ser-307 (human Ser-312) phosphorylation on IRS1. Finally, IRS1 knockdown eliminated the enhancement in differentiation elicited by raptor or Rheb knockdown, suggesting that IRS1 is a critical mediator of the myogenic functions of raptor and Rheb. In conclusion, the Rheb-mTOR/raptor pathway negatively regulates myogenic differentiation by suppressing IRS1-PI3K-Akt signaling. These findings underscore the versatility of mTOR signaling in biological regulations and implicate the existence of novel mTOR complexes and/or signaling mechanism in skeletal myogenesis.
- SourceAvailable from: Qi Chen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals mainly through the BMP pathway from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.Journal of Molecular Cell Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/jmcb/mjv005 · 8.43 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently, we showed that administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril to aged rats attenuated muscle strength decline and mitigated apoptosis in the gastrocnemius muscle. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the muscle-protective effects of enalapril. We also sought to discern the effects of enalapril mediated by nitric oxide (NO) from those independent of this signaling molecule. Eighty-seven male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were randomly assigned to receive enalapril (n = 23), the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L: -arginine methyl ester (L: -NAME; n = 22), enalapril + L: -NAME (n = 19), or placebo (n = 23) from 24 to 27 months of age. Experiments were performed on the tibialis anterior muscle. Total NOS activity and the expression of neuronal, endothelial, and inducible NOS isoforms (nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS) were determined to investigate the effects of enalapril on NO signaling. Transcript levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) were assessed to explore actions of enalapril on inflammation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Protein expression of energy-sensing and insulin signaling mediators, including protein kinase B (Akt-1), phosphorylated Akt-1 (pAkt-1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP-activated protein kinase subunit alpha (AMPKα), phosphorylated AMPKα (pAMPKα), and the glucose transporter GLUT-4, was also determined. Finally, the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was quantified in subsarcolemmal (SSM) and intermyofibrillar (IFM) mitochondria. Enalapril increased total NOS activity, which was prevented by L: -NAME co-administration. eNOS protein content was enhanced by enalapril, but not by enalapril + L: -NAME. Gene expression of iNOS was down-regulated by enalapril either alone or in combination with L: -NAME. In contrast, protein levels of nNOS were unaltered by treatments. The mRNA abundance of TNF-α was reduced by enalapril relative to placebo, with no differences among any other group. PCG-1α gene expression was unaffected by enalapril and lowered by enalapril + L: -NAME. No differences in protein expression of Akt-1, pAkt-1, AMPKα, pAMPKα, or GLUT-4 were detected among groups. However, mTOR protein levels were increased by enalapril compared with placebo. Finally, all treatment groups displayed reduced SSM, but not IFM H(2)O(2) production relative to placebo. Our data indicate that enalapril induces a number of metabolic adaptations in aged skeletal muscle. These effects result from the concerted modulation of NO and angiotensin II signaling, rather than from a dichotomous action of enalapril on the two pathways. Muscle protection by enalapril administered late in life appears to be primarily mediated by mitigation of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory signaling.Age 05/2012; 35(4). DOI:10.1007/s11357-012-9428-4 · 3.45 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: mTOR, the mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin, regulates a wide range of cellular and developmental processes by coordinating signaling responses to mitogens, nutrients, and various stresses. Over the last decade, mTOR has emerged as a master regulator of skeletal myogenesis controlling multiple stages of the myofiber formation process. In this review, we present an emerging view of the signaling network underlying mTOR regulation of myogenesis, which contrasts the well-established mechanisms in the regulation of cell and muscle growth. Current questions for future studies are also highlighted.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2012; DOI:10.1074/jbc.R112.406942 · 4.60 Impact Factor