Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in lungs from colonized COPD patients.
ABSTRACT Pneumocystis jirovecii has been detected in lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with disease severity. The regional distribution of the organism in lungs is unknown, but differences in distribution of Pneumocystis could affect estimates of colonization prevalence. We examined the distribution of Pneumocystis in the lungs of 19 non-HIV-infected patients with COPD who were undergoing lung transplantation. DNA was extracted from explanted lungs. We found Pneumocystis colonization in lung tissue of 42.1% of patients with advanced COPD; however, there was significant regional variation in colonization between lung segments of individual patients. Colonization was detected more commonly in the lower and middle lobes than in the upper lobes. These findings suggest that single samples from an individual may underestimate the prevalence of Pneumocystis colonization and future studies may obtain a higher yield of Pneumocystis colonization detection when sampling the lower lobes.
Article: A randomized trial comparing lung-volume-reduction surgery with medical therapy for severe emphysema.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lung-volume-reduction surgery has been proposed as a palliative treatment for severe emphysema. Effects on mortality, the magnitude and durability of benefits, and criteria for the selection of patients have not been established. A total of 1218 patients with severe emphysema underwent pulmonary rehabilitation and were randomly assigned to undergo lung-volume-reduction surgery or to receive continued medical treatment. Overall mortality was 0.11 death per person-year in both treatment groups (risk ratio for death in the surgery group, 1.01; P=0.90). After 24 months, exercise capacity had improved by more than 10 W in 15 percent of the patients in the surgery group, as compared with 3 percent of patients in the medical-therapy group (P<0.001). With the exclusion of a subgroup of 140 patients at high risk for death from surgery according to an interim analysis, overall mortality in the surgery group was 0.09 death per person-year, as compared with 0.10 death per person-year in the medical-therapy group (risk ratio, 0.89; P=0.31); exercise capacity after 24 months had improved by more than 10 W in 16 percent of patients in the surgery group, as compared with 3 percent of patients in the medical-therapy group (P<0.001). Among patients with predominantly upper-lobe emphysema and low exercise capacity, mortality was lower in the surgery group than in the medical-therapy group (risk ratio for death, 0.47; P=0.005). Among patients with non-upper-lobe emphysema and high exercise capacity, mortality was higher in the surgery group than in the medical-therapy group (risk ratio, 2.06; P=0.02). Overall, lung-volume-reduction surgery increases the chance of improved exercise capacity but does not confer a survival advantage over medical therapy. It does yield a survival advantage for patients with both predominantly upper-lobe emphysema and low base-line exercise capacity. Patients previously reported to be at high risk and those with non-upper-lobe emphysema and high base-line exercise capacity are poor candidates for lung-volume-reduction surgery, because of increased mortality and negligible functional gain.New England Journal of Medicine 06/2003; 348(21):2059-73. · 53.30 Impact Factor