An essential role of PDCD4 in progression and malignant proliferation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
ABSTRACT Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is a tumor suppressor that can inhibit tumorigenesis by suppressing activator protein (AP)-1 activation and protein translation. Lost or decreased PDCD4 expression has been found in multiple types of human cancers, which was also associated with progression and metastasis of the tumors. However, the status and significance of PDCD4 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors have not been evaluated. In the present study, we examined the PDCD4 expression in a total of 63 gastrointestinal stromal tumor samples at both mRNA and protein levels by RT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that the expression of PDCD4 mRNA was diminished in 68% (17/25) of the tumor samples, and the level of PDCD4 protein appeared to be decreased in 66.7% (42/63) of the samples, as compared to adjacent normal gastrointestinal tissues, which expressed high levels of PDCD4 mRNA and protein. In addition, altered expression of PDCD4 was associated with clinicopathological parameters including risk group, tumor size, and mitosis. Moreover, PDCD4 expression had a negative correlation with the Ki-67 labeling index (r = -0.6059, P < 0.0001). All these results suggest that downregulation of PDCD4 expression may have an essential role in the progression and malignant proliferation of human gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
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ABSTRACT: The expression of the human Ki-67 protein is strictly associated with cell proliferation. During interphase, the antigen can be exclusively detected within the nucleus, whereas in mitosis most of the protein is relocated to the surface of the chromosomes. The fact that the Ki-67 protein is present during all active phases of the cell cycle (G(1), S, G(2), and mitosis), but is absent from resting cells (G(0)), makes it an excellent marker for determining the so-called growth fraction of a given cell population. In the first part of this study, the term proliferation marker is discussed and examples of the applications of anti-Ki-67 protein antibodies in diagnostics of human tumors are given. The fraction of Ki-67-positive tumor cells (the Ki-67 labeling index) is often correlated with the clinical course of the disease. The best-studied examples in this context are carcinomas of the prostate and the breast. For these types of tumors, the prognostic value for survival and tumor recurrence has repeatedly been proven in uni- and multivariate analysis. The preparation of new monoclonal antibodies that react with the Ki-67 equivalent protein from rodents now extends the use of the Ki-67 protein as a proliferation marker to laboratory animals that are routinely used in basic research. The second part of this review focuses on the biology of the Ki-67 protein. Our current knowledge of the Ki-67 gene and protein structure, mRNA splicing, expression, and cellular localization during the cell-division cycle is summarized and discussed. Although the Ki-67 protein is well characterized on the molecular level and extensively used as a proliferation marker, the functional significance still remains unclear. There are indications, however, that Ki-67 protein expression is an absolute requirement for progression through the cell-division cycle.Journal of Cellular Physiology 04/2000; 182(3):311-22. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An mRNA differential display comparison of mouse JB6 promotion-sensitive (P+) and -resistant (P-) cells identified a novel gene product that inhibits neoplastic transformation. The JB6 P+ and P- cells are genetic variants that differ in their transformation response to tumor promoters; P+ cells form anchorage-independent colonies that are tumorigenic, and P- cells do not. A differentially displayed fragment, A7-1, was preferentially expressed in P- cells at levels >/=10-fold those in P+ cells, making its mRNA a candidate inhibitor of neoplastic transformation. An A7-1 cDNA was isolated that was identical to murine Pdcd4 gene cDNAs, also known as MA-3 or TIS, and analogous to human H731 and 197/15a. Until now, the function of the Pdcd4 protein has been unknown. Paralleling the mRNA levels, Pdcd4 protein levels were greater in P- than in P+ cells. Pdcd4 mRNA was also expressed at greater levels in the less progressed keratinocytes of another mouse skin neoplastic progression series. To test the hypothesis that Pdcd4 inhibits tumor promoter-induced transformation, stable cell lines expressing antisense Pdcd4 were generated from parental P- cells. The reduction of Pdcd4 proteins in antisense lines was accompanied by acquisition of a transformation-sensitive (P+) phenotype. The antisense-transfected cells were reverted to their initial P- phenotype by overexpression of a Pdcd4 sense fragment. These observations demonstrate that the Pdcd4 protein inhibits neoplastic transformation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1999; 96(24):14037-42. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although peripheral blood and bone marrow are usually readily available from patients, present techniques of RNA extraction are tedious, require millilitres of starting material and removal of red blood cells before RNA purification. Further, successful reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification requires the removal of haemoglobin derivatives which interfere with the PCR process. Recently, one step rapid use reagents have become available, claiming to be useful for obtaining high quality RNA from microlitre quantities of whole blood drawn directly from the patient. Their use to date in clinical samples appears limited with little information in the literature documented. In an attempt to overcome this, we tested the Trizol-LS, RNA-STAT-50 and Ultraspec-3 reagents upon a statistically significant number of clinical isolates of fresh and cryopreserved peripheral blood, bone marrow, blood apheresis products and a breast cancer cell line (MCF7) in order to evaluate whether these methods could be applied to routine laboratory use in an RT-PCR method capable of detecting rare gene expression. Our findings showed that there was some variation in the quality of RNA extracted which was indicated by absorbance spectrophotometry at 260 and 280 nm. 1% agarose gel electrophoresis showed that each of these methods could yield total RNA capable of generating the signature 18S and 28S rRNA bands. Using the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric anova test combined with Dunn's multiple comparison test, the only statistically significant difference (p<0.05) indicated that Trizol-LS was more reliable than RNA-STAT-50-LS and Ultraspec-3 at extracting RNA from fresh peripheral blood. RNA extracted with the Trizol-LS and RNA STAT-50 reagents was successfully amplified in a multiplex RT-PCR reaction for detection of the multi-drug resistance related genes MDR1, the multi-drug resistance related protein (MRP) and topoisomerase IIalpha. Low level MDR1 gene expression could be detected in frozen whole blood. However, PCR products were only seen when the anti-coagulant heparin was removed from all samples prior to cDNA production. RT-PCR amplification was not 100% successful with RNA extracted with Ultraspec-3 reagent. In conclusion, we found that the RNA extracted from whole blood with the Trizol-LS and the RNA-STAT-50 are suitable for use in clinically relevant molecular biology protocols that analyze rare event genes without further purification. Our results indicated that the Trizol-LS reagent was generally more consistent in obtaining a pure and sufficient quantity of RNA from patient material as shown by the mean result of purity and quantity in comparison to either Ultraspec-3 or RNA-STAT-50-LS reagents. Ultraspec-3 is not easily suited for direct use with whole blood products.Cellular and molecular biology 12/1997; 43(8):1227-34. · 0.81 Impact Factor